Suigen, South Korea
Suigen, South Korea

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Kang S.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Choi W.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2014

North Korea used to have abundant forest stocks but underwent substantial deforestation and degradation of forest in recent decades. This study examined morphological changes of forest cover in North Korea between the 1980s and 2000s. Land cover data based on Landsat TM imagery were obtained as images from the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Environment. The images were processed and used for the morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and network analysis. MSPA classified the forest cover into morphological classes such as core, islet, bridge, perforation, edge, loop, and branch. The network analysis identified individual networks of forest, each of which represents a patch of connected forest. The results are summarized as follows: (1) forest cover sharply decreased between the 1990s and 2000s, particularly in western provinces; (2) morphological classes indicating forest fragmentation such as islet, branch, and edge consistently increased in their fraction to the total area between the 1980s and 2000s; (3) islet, branch, and edge also increased in number during the same period; (4) forest networks shrank in size and increased in number. Overall, the results demonstrate that deforestation and fragmentation of forest occurred simultaneously in North Korea during the time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kang S.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Kim J.-O.,Kyung Hee University
Landscape and Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study is to understand changes in green infrastructure (GI) in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, focusing on the critical GI components of hubs and links. We applied a morphological analysis tool, morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA), to explore GI in the Seoul metropolitan area. For input data to run MSPA, we used 30-m pixel-sized land cover data of 2000 and 2009 provided by the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Land cover data are used as foundational information for GI network mapping. Using MSPA, we examined morphological changes in hubs and links from 2000 to 2009 in the metropolitan area as well as in 32 municipalities in Gyeonggi-do, a major part of the metropolitan area. Our analysis showed that the area of hubs in the Seoul metropolis has decreased, while the number of links has dramatically increased, over this 10-year period. This implies that hubs have largely been fragmented into smaller ones with a rapid increase in links in a way that does not conserve and enhance GI. We also compared analysis of network area changes in the Seoul metropolitan area with the environmental conservation value assessment map (ECVAM) currently in use by the government to assess conservation value, and found that the network areas of 2009 mapped by MSPA corresponded to a 87.8 % level to the Grade I areas of the ECVAM, with variation by municipality. From these analyses, we conclude that MSPA is helpful in establishing conservation planning strategies optimized for local and regional contexts. The MSPA also provides a useful tool to complement the ECVAM for improving GI functions. © 2015, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan.


Sun L.-Y.,Shenzhen University | Cheong H.-K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee E.-W.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Kang K.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Park J.-H.,Sungkyunkwan University
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2016

Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. © 2016 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.


Kang S.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Choi W.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Schierenbeck T.M.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Disaster Advances | Year: 2012

We investigated the spatial pattern of storm damage in residential and rice paddy areas in Gyeonggi-do (province), Korea in the aftermath of two heavy rainfall events in July and August of 2009. We counted the number of damage locations in each catchment or administrative unit of the province and calculated global and local Moran's I values. We also calculated the distance from nearest streams to the damage locations. As a result, we identified clusters of several catchments or administrative units that have high z-scores of local Moran's I for damage count. Such areas did not always have the highest level of damage, but they should be considered altogether for storm damage management. We also found that the damage in rice paddy areas was more strongly related to the distance from streams than the damage in residential areas.


Baek K.O.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Seo I.W.,Seoul National University
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2010

Routing procedures have been used for determining the observed values of the dispersion coefficient in river mixing studies. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the existing routing procedures, we developed a new routing procedure capable of being applied under a transient concentration situation while accounting for river irregularities. The proposed routing procedure is based on the exact solution of the depth-averaged, two-dimensional, mass transport equation combined with the stream-tube concept and was verified through the tracer data acquired from field tests conducted in natural rivers located in Korea. The observed dispersion coefficients evaluated by the routing procedure exhibited a stream-wise variation along the rivers, in that a minimum value was seen in the straight region and a maximum value downstream of the apex of the bend. This variation was attributed to the flow dynamics of secondary currents induced by the meandering of the rivers. The dispersion coefficients obtained by the new method over the reach were in the same range of those calculated by other methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hwang S.-A.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Hwang S.-J.,Konkuk University | Park S.-R.,Konkuk University | Lee S.-W.,Konkuk University
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using data collected from 527 sample points in five major rivers in Korea-the Han, Geum, Nakdong, Younsan, and Seomjin Rivers. Water quality data were derived from samples collected and analyzed under the guidelines of the Korean National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program, and land use was quantified using products provided by the Korean Ministry of the Environment, which were used to create a Geographic Information System. Linear models (LMs) and generalized additive models were developed to describe the relationships between urban land use and stream water quality, including biological oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP). A comparison between LMs and non-linear models (in terms of R2 and Akaike's information criterion values) indicated that the general additive models had a better fit and suggested a non-linear relationship between urban land use and water quality. Non-linear models for BOD, TN, and TP showed that each parameter had a similar relationship with urban land use, which had two breakpoints. The non-linear models suggested that the relationships between urban land use and water quality could be categorized into three regions, based on the proportion of urban land use. In moderate urban land use conditions, negative impacts of urban land use on water quality were observed, which confirmed the findings of previous studies. However, the relationships were different in very low urbanization or very high urbanization conditions. Our results could be used to develop strategies for more efficient stream restoration and management, which would enhance water quality based on the degree of urbanization in watersheds. In particular, land use management for enhancing stream water quality might be more effective when urban land use is in the range of 1.1%-31.5% of a watershed. If urban land use exceeds 31.5% in a watershed, a more comprehensive approach would be required because water quality would not respond as rapidly as expected. © 2016 by the authors.


An K.-J.,Konkuk University | Lee S.-W.,Konkuk University | Hwang S.-J.,Konkuk University | Park S.-R.,Konkuk University | Hwang S.-A.,Gyeonggi Research Institute
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

This study examined the non-stationary relationship between the ecological condition of streams and the proportions of forest and developed land in watersheds using geographically-weighted regression (GWR). Most previous studies have adopted the ordinary least squares (OLS) method, which assumes stationarity of the relationship between land use and biological indicators. However, these conventional OLS models cannot provide any insight into local variations in the land use effects within watersheds. Here, we compared the performance of the OLS and GWR statistical models applied to benthic diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities in sub-watershed management areas. We extracted land use datasets from the Ministry of Environment LULC map and data on biological indicators in Nakdong river systems from the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program in Korea. We found that the GWR model had superior performance compared with the OLS model, as assessed based on R2, Akaike's Information Criterion, and Moran's I values. Furthermore, GWR models revealed specific localized effects of land use on biological indicators, which we investigated further. The results of this study can be used to inform more effective policies on watershed management and to enhance ecological integrity by prioritizing sub-watershed management areas. © 2016 by the authors.


Nam J.,Gyeonggi Research Institute | Han J.,Hongik University | Lee C.,Seoul National University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

With the decrease in the demand for large-scale apartments as a result of an aging society and a decrease in population, there has been an increase in vacant houses due to a supply that exceeds the projected demands. As a method of urban regeneration in rural areas and activation of citizen communities, the utilization of vacant houses has become one of the ways to promote a new lifestyle, active movement for citizen participation, and business model for long-term revitalization. This study aims to uncover and examine the major causes and factors behind the upswing in vacant houses. We investigated the current state of vacant houses, the recent policies concerning them, and the types of vacant houses in Korea's Gyeonggi province. We then categorized and analyzed the causes of houses being vacant, their types, and the methods of utilizing them under different local conditions in order to understand the efficient processes and strategies for their utilization. The results showed that an excess of building construction (especially recent construction permits), the number of recipients of the national basic livelihood scheme, and the number of elderly people showed the strongest correlation with vacant houses. © 2016 by the authors.


PubMed | Sungkyunkwan University and Gyeonggi Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia-Pacific journal of public health | Year: 2016

This study aims to estimate the burden of disease (BOD) due to secondhand smoking (SHS) in Korea. SHS-related diseases were selected via systematic review. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated by using standard formula. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated using Statistical Office and Health Insurance data. SHS burden was calculated by multiplying nonsmokers BOD with the PAF of SHS. Total BOD due to SHS was 44143 DALYs with 57% from males and 43% from females. The highest percentage of SHS burden was due to stroke. BOD was highest in the 50s age group in both genders. Years of life lost contributed major part of BOD due to all diseases. SHS burden in Korea in 2013 was the highest among the high-income Asia Pacific group countries. Effective intervention policies with more focus on vulnerable groups like adults in their 50s should be implemented to control SHS-related burden.


PubMed | Shenzhen University, Sungkyunkwan University and Gyeonggi Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Korean medical science | Year: 2016

Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure.

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