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Han S.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee K.G.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Yeo J.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Oh B.Y.,Icheon si Agricultural Technology Service Center | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The effects of water supplementation of bee venom (BV) on performance, antioxidant activity, and liver function in Arbor Acres broiler chickens were investigated. Hence, 3 experimental treatment groups (control, 0.5 mg/L of BV, and 1 mg/L of BV) were allocated to 3 replicates of 5,000 one-day-old chicks each. The control group was kept on tap water, whereas the other 2 groups were supplied water supplemented with 0.5 and 1 mg of BV, respectively, per liter of drinking water. Broilers were provided ad libitum access to feed for the experimental period of 1 to 28 d of age. Supplementing drinking water with BV significantly increased BW gain at 28 d of age (P < 0.05). The average daily weight gain from d 1 to 28 was increased for birds supplemented with BV compared with control birds. The increase in BW gain was more pronounced with supplementation of 1 mg/L of BV compared with 0.5 mg/L of BV. An improved feed intake was noted in groups supplemented with BV as compared with control chicks. Liver function enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities including total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and globulin were not changed by BV supplementation. Tap water supplementation of BV did not alter the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, heterophils, and lymphocytes. However, the antioxidative activities estimated as a superoxide dismutase-like activity of broiler chicks supplemented with BV was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in comparison with those without BV supplementation. These data indicate a possibility of better broiler performance through BV supplementation under conditions of severe stressful challenges the newly born chicks encounter. © 2010 Poultry Science.

Bang J.,Yeungnam University | Shukla S.,Yeungnam University | Kim Y.-H.,Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory | Kim M.,Yeungnam University
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2012

Due to increased rate of Salmonella infections in humans and animals, a rapid indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), was developed in this study for routine analytical detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Formalin killed whole cell lysate of S. typhimurium was subcutaneously injected as an antigen into rabbit to produce antibody. The optimum production of rabbit anti-S. typhimurium immunoglobulin G (IgG) was reached to the highest level on 8 week. A two step caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation method was used to purify rabbit anti-S. typhimurium IgG from the immunized rabbit sera. The purified IgG was used for the detection of S. typhimurium through IC-ELISA. The developed technique was able to detect 10 6 cells/ml of S. typhimurium. Also, the specificity of the proposed immunoassay was investigated with different foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cronobacter muytjensii, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella enteritidis which produced no significant reaction signal as compared with S. typhimurium. These findings indicate that IC-ELISA could be used as an alternative method for detection of S. typhimurium. © 2012 University of Bucharest.

Park S.,Yeungnam University | Shukla S.,Yeungnam University | Kim Y.,Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory | Oh S.,Chonnam National University | And 2 more authors.
Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2012

This study aimed to produce a polyclonal antibody against Cronobacter muytjensii (C. muytjensii, formerly called Enterobacter sakazakii) and to develop an immunoassay for its detection. The optimum production of rabbit anti-C. muytjensii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and chicken anti-C. muytjensii IgY was reached in weeks 8 and 9, respectively. Purification of rabbit anti-C. muytjensii IgG from immunized rabbit sera was accomplished using the caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation method. As a result, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis produced two bands around 25 and 50 kDa, corresponding to a light and a heavy chain, respectively. The optimized conditions for sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were using rabbit anti-C. muytjensii IgG (1 μg/mL) as a detection antibody and chicken anti-C. muytjensii IgY (10 μg/mL) as a capture antibody. In this assay, no cross-reactivity was observed with the other genera of pathogenic bacteria tested, which included Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. The developed assay did not show cross-reactivity with other tested species of Cronobacter and Enterobacter genera such as C. turicensis, C. sakazakii, E. aerogenes, E. pulveris and E. helveticus. The detection limit of sandwich ELISA for C. muytjensii was found to be 2.0 × 104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. In addition, detection of C. muytjensii in infant formula powder showed a low matrix effect on the detection curve of sandwich ELISA for C. muytjensii, the detection limit being found to be 6.3 × 104 CFU/mL. These findings demonstrate that the developed method is able to detect all strains of C. muytjensii. Hence, this ELISA technique has potent application for the rapid and accurate detection of C. muytjensii in dietary foods. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Kim J.H.,Gangwondo Veterinary Service Laboratory | Zheng X.H.,Kyungpook National University | Cho J.K.,Metropolitan Health and Environmental Research Institute | Sung M.S.,Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory | Kim K.S.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

In this study, prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing coliform from the Geumho River in Korea were assessed. A total of 342 coliforms were isolated from seven different sites of the Geumho River from April to November 2008. The mean coliform and fecal colifrom population in the Geumho River was 62 CFU/mL and 22 CFU/mL, respectively. Among 342 isolates, 21 for which the MIC of ceftazidime was ≥2 ug/mL were confirmed to be positive for ESBLs, and all of them were identified as Escherichia (E.) coli. Twenty-one ESBL-producing E. coli showed high resistance of 81-100% to ampicillin, cefaclor, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, cefprozil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline, followed by trimethoprim, kanamycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, and ceftazidime with resistance rate of 38.1-61.9%, respectively. The resistance rate to chloramphenicol was as low as 14.3%, and all isolates were susceptible to amikacin. All 21 isolates showed resistance to eight or more drugs, and 14 isolates (66.7%) transferred their antimicrobial resistance to recipient strains by conjugation. Among the 21 isolates, the TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in all of them by PCR, whereas no SHV gene was recognized, and the 14 transconjugants from these isolates also contained identical ESBL gene. The most frequent β-lactamase type was TEM-116 and CTX-M-15 with the ratio of 57.1%, followed by TEM-1 and CTX-M-15 (23.8%), TEM-1 and CTX-M-14 (9.5%), TEM-1 and CTX-M-27 (4.8%), and TEM-116 and CTX-M-14 (4.8%). MICs of cefotaxime were more than eight-fold higher compared to those of ceftazidime in the 21 isolates.

Cho J.-K.,Metropolitan Health and Environmental Research Institute | Kim J.-H.,Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory | Kwon S.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Kim W.,Kyungpook National University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune status or infection rates for primary egg-transmitted bacterial diseases such as pullorum disease-fowl typhoid (PD-FT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection among 70 broiler breeder flocks throughout Korea between July 2011 and August 2011. The sero-prevalence of flocks and individual chickens for PD-FT was 50.0% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of PD-FT sero-positivity increased over time from rearing to advanced age period. The sero-positive rate of flocks and individual chickens for Salmonella Gallinarum 9R (SG 9R) was 95.7% and 83.6%, respectively. Only two flocks in the brooding period and one flock in the laying period out of all flocks tested were sero-negative for SG 9R. When evaluating MG infection rates, 63 flocks were sero-positive. This excluded two flocks in the brooding period, one flock in the rearing period, and four flocks in the laying period. The sero-prevalence of individual chickens was as high as 66.1% and 67.8% in the rearing and laying periods, respectively. Additionally, birds that were an advanced age period had a high sero-prevalence rate of 86.6%. The rates of sero-positivity for MS infection among flocks and individual chickens were 88.6% and 64.2%, respectively. Data from the present investigation confirmed that the sero-prevalence of PD-FT, MG infection, and MS infection among broiler breeder flocks in Korea is very high. Consequently, we recommend that a national intervention strategy should be established in the near future to eradicate these diseases from broiler breeder flocks. © 2014, Japan Poultry Science Association.

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