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Cho Y.-E.,Andong National University | Alcantara E.,Andong National University | Kumaran S.,Andong National University | Son K.-H.,Andong National University | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

Red yeast (Monascus purpureus) is used as a traditional hypocholesterolemic dietary food component in Asia due to its bioactive component, lovastatin. Recently, new evidence suggesting that the statins in red yeast enhance bone formation has been reported, but more research is still needed in order to support these claims of osteogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that red yeast rice (in which red yeast is fermented) can improve osteogenic function through osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. We studied the effect of methanol extract of red yeast rice powder (RYRP) on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation by measuring mitochondrial enzyme activity and bone marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, respectively. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in various concentrations of RYRP methanol extract (0.001-1 mg/mL) during the osteoblast differentiation period (1, 5, 10, and 15 days). As measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-. y]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, RYRP extracts stimulated cell proliferation during a 24-hour period, compared to cooked white rice powder extract. The most pronounced effect was observed at the concentration range between 0.075 and 0.1 mg/mL. This RYRP stimulatory effect for cell proliferation was observed during the whole osteogenic period. Cellular (synthesized) ALP activity was increased at a RYRP extract concentration of 0.075 mg/mL during 15 days of culture, but the medium (secreted) ALP activity did not show any significant change. This cellular ALP activity stimulation by RYRP extract was confirmed by the staining of ALP activity on cell matrix layers for matrix calcification. The results imply that RYRP extract may increase osteogenic effect by stimulating cell proliferation and ALP activity in osteoblastic cells. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Eo H.J.,Andong National University | Park G.H.,Andong National University | Song H.M.,Andong National University | Lee J.W.,Andong National University | And 5 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Song H.M.,Andong National University | Park G.H.,Andong National University | Eo H.J.,Andong National University | Lee J.W.,Andong National University | And 5 more authors.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Naringenin (NAR) as one of the flavonoids observed in grapefruit has been reported to exhibit an anti-cancer activity. However, more detailed mechanism by which NAR exerts anti-cancer properties still remains unanswered. Thus, in this study, we have shown that NAR down-regulates the level of cyclin D1 in human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. NAR inhibited the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 blocked NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with NAR. In addition, NAR increased the phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine blocked cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. p38 inactivation attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. From these results, we suggest that NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through p38 activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between NAR, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. © 2015 The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. Source


Park G.H.,Andong National University | Park J.H.,Jungwon University | Eo H.J.,Andong National University | Song H.M.,Andong National University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Recently, Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (A. distichum) has been reported to exert the inhibitory effect on angiotensin converting enzyme. However, no specific pharmacological effects from A. distichum have been described. We performed in vitro study to evaluate anti-cancer properties of A. distichum and then elucidate the potential mechanisms. Methods: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ATF3 expression level was evaluated by Western blot or RT-PCR and ATF3 transcriptional activity was determined using a dual-luciferase assay kit after the transfection of ATF3 promoter constructs. In addition, ATF3-dependent apoptosis was evaluated by Western blot after ATF3 knockdown using ATF3 siRNA. Results: Exposure of ethyl acetate fraction from the parts of A. distichum including flower, leaf and branch to human colorectal cancer cells, breast cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma reduced the cell viability. The branch extracts from A. distichum (EAFAD-B) increased the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and promoter activity, indicating transcriptional activation of ATF3 gene by EAFAD-B. In addition, our data showed that EAFAD-B-responsible sites might be between -147 and -85 region of the ATF3 promoter. EAFAD-B-induced ATF3 promoter activity was significantly decreased when the CREB site was deleted. However, the deletion of Ftz sites did not affect ATF3 promoter activity by EAFAD-B. We also observed that inhibition of p38MAPK and GSK3β attenuated EAFAD-B-mediated ATF3 promoter activation. Also, EAFAD-B contributes at least in part to increase of ATF3 accumulation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the anti-cancer activity of EAFAD-B may be a result of ATF3 promoter activation and subsequent increase of ATF3 expression. © 2014 Park et al. Source


Lee J.R.,Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio industry andong | Lee M.H.,Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio industry andong | Eo H.J.,Andong National University | Park G.H.,Andong National University | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is one of the important compounds found in barley, green cavendish bananas and grapevine leaves. PCA shows anti-cancer activities in breast, leukemia and colorectal cancer cells. Previous study reported that PCA exerts anti-cancer activity through down-regulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) by PCA has not been studied. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects ATF3 expression and ATF3-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PCA decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HCT116 and SW480 cells. In addition, PCA reduced cell viability in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HepG-2 cells. Exposure of PCA activated the levels of ATF3 protein and mRNA in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2/ by PD98059 and p38 by SB203580 inhibited PCA-induced ATF3 expression and transcriptional activation. ATF3-knockdown inhibited PCA-induced apoptosis and cell viability. In addition, ATF3 overexpression enhanced PCA-mediated cleavage of PARP. These findings suggest that inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis by PCA may be result of ATF3 expression through ERK1/2 and p38-mediated transcriptional activation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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