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Jo W.-S.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Park H.-N.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Cho D.-H.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Yoo Y.-B.,Mushroom | Park S.-C.,Kyungpook National University
Mycobiology | Year: 2011

To determine the optimal media conditions for the detection of the extracellular cellulase activity in Ganoderma neo-japonicum, we varied three media conditions: dye reagent, pH, and temperature. We evaluated the use of four dyes, Congo red, phenol red, remazol brilliant blue, and trypan blue. To observe the effect of pH on the chromogenic reaction, we tested media ranging from 4.5 to 8.0. To research the effect of temperature on the clear zone and the fungus growing zone, we tested temperatures ranging from 15 to 35°C. On the whole, the best protocol called for Ganoderma neo-japonicum transfer onto media containing Congo red with a pH of 7.0, followed by incubation at 25°C for 5 days. Our results will be useful to researchers who study extracellular enzyme activity in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. © The Korean Society of Mycology. Source


Jo W.-S.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Park H.-N.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Cho D.-H.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Yoo Y.-B.,Mushroom | Park S.-C.,Kyungpook National University
Mycobiology | Year: 2011

The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. β-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for β-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neojaponicum showed the strongest activity. Moderate ligninase activity was only observed in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. In contrast, pectinase, amylase, protease, and cellulase were not present in Ganoderma. The results show that the degree of activity of the tested enzymes varied depending on the Ganoderma species tested. © The Korean Society of Mycology. Source


Chang Z.-Q.,Kyungpook National University | Lee J.-S.,Kyungpook National University | Gebru E.,Kyungpook National University | Hong J.-H.,Bio Industry Center | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

β-Glucans are heterogeneous groups of glucose polymers found in the cell walls of fungi, plants and some bacteria. Our previous report showed that a novel β-1,3/1,6-glucan produced from Paenibacillus (P.) polymyxa JB115 can induce nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells. In the present study, the β-glucan significantly increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with NFκB or AP1, but not STAT1, reporter vector DNA, which contain their binding promoter site. All specific NFκB and MAPKs pathway inhibitors (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, AG490, U0126, SB203580 and SP600125) remarkably attenuated NO production induced by the β-glucan. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that the stimulation of Raw264.7 cells by β-glucan induced phosphorylation of IκB and the consequent translocation of NFκB into the nucleus. Meanwhile, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPKs in cytoplasm were also confirmed. All these results indicated that β-glucan from P. polymyxa JB115 activates macrophages through MAPKs and NFκB signaling pathway. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Baek K.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | Yoon S.-R.,Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration | Kim G.-R.,Kyungpook National University | And 6 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This study was 'carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (Ri=0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R*M).9I17) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2=0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were? 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. Source


Reza M.A.,Kyungpook National University | Hossain M.A.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Yohannes S.B.,Kyungpook National University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2014

In this study, a dichloromethane fraction (DCMF) from 70% Auricularia auricula-judae ethanol extract showed the highest level of antitumor activity compared to other solvent fractions (ethyl acetate, butanol, and water). The DCMF was found to have more potent antitumor activity against broncheoalveolar cancer (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 57.2 μg/mL) and gastric cancer cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 73.2 μg/mL) compared to the other solvent fractions, although all fractions inhibited the proliferation of the tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further analyzed the DCMF composition by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectroscopy. Based on the results of this analysis, an antitumor active component (diazane) was identified in the DCMF. However, we found that diazane alone had a lower level of antitumor activity than the DCMF. These findings indicate that other unknown components of the DCMF also are responsible for the cytotoxic effects of DCMF against tumor cells. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that DCMF induced cytotoxicity or tumor cell apoptosis as a result of the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and p53 overexpression. Taken together, our study results demonstrated that the DCMF may be used as a functional additive for enhancing antioxidant activities and suppressing tumor growth in the body. © 2014 Begell House, Inc. Source

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