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Bagirov A.M.,University for Information Science and Technology | Jetmarova H.M.,University for Information Science and Technology | Nuaimat A.A.,University for Information Science and Technology | Ahmed S.T.,University for Information Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the 34th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, HWRS 2012 | Year: 2012

The operation of a water distribution system is a complex task which involves scheduling of pumps, regulating water levels of storages, and providing satisfactory water quality to customers at required flow and pressure. Pump scheduling is one of the most important tasks of the operation of a water distribution system as it represents the major part of its operating costs. In this paper, a novel approach for modeling of pump scheduling to minimize energy consumption by pumps is introduced which uses pump's start/end run times. We separate two types of pumps, one is operated based on the water level in a storage and another one is operated based on downstream pressure. For the first type of pumps both the explicit and implicit pump scheduling can be used, whereas the second type pumps can be optimized only using implicit pump scheduling. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem and an algorithm is developed for its solution. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using a literature test problem applying the hydraulic simulation model EPANet. © 2012 Engineers Australia.

Dow N.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Gray S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Li J.-D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zhang J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 6 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2016

Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) supplied with waste heat was demonstrated for water recovery from saline demineralisation regeneration waste. The pilot plant was located at a gas fired power station which provided the <40°C waste heat and wastewater to the DCMD system with 0.67m2 of membrane area. The trial was operated over three months without replacing the membranes or module and achieved 92.8% water recovery. Flux was approximately 3L/(m2·h) and was dependant mostly on the waste heat temperature being supplied. Membrane fouling affected flux and thermal energy demand only at the very end of the trial. The system produced a high quality distillate product with average 99.9% dissolved solids rejection. Small amounts of ammonia and carbon dioxide however were found in the permeate. Membrane analysis post-trial revealed fouling was principally inorganic scale but organic matter on the membrane was also evident. Permeate side fouling was also observed, attributed to corrosion of the cooling heat exchanger. Based on the available energy for a continuously operating 500MW (electric) rated power station, the treatment potential was estimated at up to 8000kL/day, which is practical for supplying water to numerous industrial, residential or agricultural sites. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Godoy W.,W and D Engineering and Legal Services | Barton A.F.,GWMWater
Australian Journal of Water Resources | Year: 2010

An 8800 km pipeline has been constructed in estern Victoria to replace 17,500 km of open channel system. The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project (WMPP) will provide reticulated water to 36 towns and about 6000 farms across an area of approximately 2 million hectares. With this pipeline will come vastly improved efficiencies in the supply of water, with water savings being returned to the environment, existing consumptive use and new development. One of the challenges for managers of water recovery projects is to determine the most effective form of entitlement for the beneficiaries of the water savings. In regulated systems, consumptive entitlements are generally supplied from water held in storage, where as the environment has a share of the run flow specified in the form of a minimum passing flow rule. However, in some cases, such as in the Wimmera-Mallee system, the environment may have the option of both regulated and unregulated entitlements. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect the environment's entitlement configuration has on the volume of water supplied to the environment, and the overall efficiency of the water supply system under the historic climatic sequence and climate change. The modelling work is undertaken using the REALM simulation package, with the results presented in case study form based on the Wimmera-Mallee system, outlining the changes in the total system water balance post-Wimmera Mallee Pipeline, changes in the environment's reliability of supply, and exceedance plots for environmental flows and headworks loss. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the need to consider the trade-offs between large entitlements of low reliability and small entitlements of high reliability as part of the system reconfiguration process, given the effect it has on total system efficiency, particularly in an uncertain climate future. © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2011.

Godoy W.R.,University of Vic | Barton A.F.,GWMWater | Barton A.F.,University of Vic | Perera B.J.C.,University of Vic
The Art and Science of Water - 36th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, HWRS 2015 | Year: 2015

Water resources planning processes around the world are increasingly striving to incorporate sustainability principles in order to find optimal solutions to multi-criterial decision-making problems. The availability of sophisticated modelling techniques such as optimisation-simulation (O-S) models provide a proven approach to efficiently and effectively search for optimal solutions using trusted simulation models. However, optimisation problems in water resources planning are seldom represented using three or more objectives; the so called 'many-objective' multi-objective optimisation problems. Limiting problem dimensionality in this way simplifies visualisation of Pareto-optimal solutions, reduces computational effort, and simplifies the evaluation and interpretation of results. The aim of this study is to present a structured procedure for developing optimal operating plans for complex water resources systems using a combined multi-objective optimisation and sustainability assessment approach. The approach is applied to an 18-objective function MOOP which represents four broad categories relating to environmental, social, consumptive, and system-wide interests for water. The Wimmera-Mallee Water Supply System (WMWSS) is a multi-reservoir system located in Western Victoria (Australia) which is operated to meet a range of conflicting interests for water using complex operating rules. An O-S model is presented which uses the Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Algorithm (NSGA-II) as the optimisation engine and the REsource ALlocation Model (REALM) software as the simulation engine. This O-S model is applied to the WMWSS to search and evaluate candidate optimal operating plans over a 118-year period assuming historic hydro-climatic conditions. The resulting optimal operating plans are ranked in terms of their overall sustainability and compared to a known reference point or 'base case operating plan' which represents the status quo in operating rules for the WMWSS case study. The results show that the combined multi-objective optimisation and sustainability assessment approach is able to find optimal operating plans that are more sustainable than the base case operating plan. © 2015, Engineers Australia. All rights reserved.

Mitra R.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Crawford S.,University of Melbourne | Barton A.F.,GWMWater | Briggs S.,GWMWater | Orbell J.D.,Victoria University of Melbourne
New Zealand Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Several different species of freshwater Bryozoa, belonging to the genera Plumatella, Rumarcanella and Fredericella, were detected within the Northern Mallee Pipeline (NMP) system in Victoria, Australia, that required definitive identification. These organisms produce asexual buds called statoblasts, with valves composed of sclerotised chitin that bear minute micro-ornamentations of considerable taxonomical significance. Imaging and analysis of these distinctive micro-ornamentations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is often employed for species identification. Meticulous preparation of statoblast samples is therefore required that necessitates the removal of adhering debris, dehydration and drying - whilst mitigating specimen damage and distortion. This technical note describes an approach whereby each of these three steps have been individually designed to be as benign as possible, using mild detergent/sonication to remove debris, a gradual and gentle dehydration procedure using ethanol, and critical point drying. For the overall process, these methods are chosen to optimise control and to minimise the use of harsh and hazardous chemicals. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Mitra R.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Barton A.F.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Briggs S.,GWMWater | Orbell J.D.,Victoria University of Melbourne
New Zealand Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Five species of freshwater bryozoans were identified in the Northern Mallee Pipeline (NMP) system in Victoria, Australia, from statoblast morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The five species were Plumatella emarginata, Fredericella australiensis, Plumatella reticulata, Rumarcanella minuta and Fredericella sultana. The latter three of these have never previously been reported as occurring on the Australian continent and samples have been preserved for safekeeping at Victoria University. The statoblasts were isolated from samples collected as intact colonies from filters and membranes at a number of different locations. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Atazadeh I.,University of Ballarat | Mills K.,University of Ballarat | Barton A.,GWMWater | Gell P.,University of Ballarat
Proceedings of the 34th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, HWRS 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper describes a research project aimed at advancing the principles of a 'working river' and to demonstrate the capacity for multiple benefits from allocation of scarce water resources. The intent of this research is to refocus approaches to water allocations from a contest over volume, towards a cooperative approach with multiple socioeconomic and environmental benefits. Work has commenced on the development of an ecological response model to aid in the development of a framework, and operational principles, to configure consumptive water transfers to complement dedicated environmental flows. A constraint imposed within this framework will be that any flow configuration identified, whilst providing beneficial environmental outcomes, will not compromise consumptive water users. The MacKenzie River, a tributary of the Wimmera River (listed under Heritage Rivers Act 1992), will be used as the case study for this work. The MacKenzie River originates in the Grampians National Park in western Victoria, and has experienced a highly modified flow regime since the construction of Wartook Reservoir in 1887. Water released from the reservoir is regulated at several locations for water supply and also, more recently, for the provision of environmental flows. Water release events, which can be described as "pulses" or "freshes", will specifically be evaluated to identify and maximise environmental benefits that may accrue from flows dedicated to consumptive use. © 2012 Engineers Australia.

Barton A.F.,GWMWater | Briggs S.,GWMWater | Mcrae-Williams P.,University of Ballarat | Prior D.,GWMWater
Australian Journal of Water Resources | Year: 2011

The last 12 years has seen extreme drought in western Victoria. This has impacted on the area in many ways, but none more so than in the provision of basic water supplies to people. To meet the challenge of drought, headworks storages have had to be operated at record low levels, severe water restrictions imposed, water carting programs established, alternative sources of water, and new technologies developed and used. Significant changes have also been made to the water supply infrastructure in the region, most notably the Northern-Mallee and Wimmera-Mallee Pipelines. This paper relates the story of how water resources were managed and bulk water was delivered to around 70,000 customers over a geographic spread of 62,000 km 2, or about 30% of Victoria. Discussion on the social, environmental and economic impacts on the region are also provided. © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2011.

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