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Park S.-O.,Gwangju Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Lee S.-H.,Busan Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Ahn J.-H.,Busan Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Jung Y.-J.,Busan Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | And 7 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In this study, a simple and rapid pre-treatment method based on liquid extraction was applied for the simultaneous determination of three macrolides (spiramycin, tylosin, and tilmicosin) residues. In these studies, the stock farm products was used as a matrix sample. When the liquid extraction method was compared with the solid phase extraction (SPE) method, the former showed higher recovery percentages and simpler steps than the latter. The macrolids were separated using a reverse-phase C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column and a gradient elution with mobile phases consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile. Tylosin and tilmicosin were detected at 288 nm and spiramycin was detected at 232 nm. The average recovery percentage ranged between 83.0-90.2% for samples spiked with the three macrolids at 50 and 100 ng/g The validation results showed that the limit of detection (7 (spiramycin), 12 (tilmiconsin), 12 (tylosin) ng/g)) was under the regulatory tolerances and the linearity from calibration curves was satisfactory for determining the multi-residue of three macrolids in farm products. Monitoring samples were collected at the main cities in Korea as Seoul, Busan, Deajeon, Incheon, Deagu, and Gwangju. Microlide antibiotics were not detected in most samples. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


Lee J.-H.,Gwangju Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Seo J.-W.,Gwangju Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | An E.-S.,Gwangju Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Kuk J.-H.,Gwangju Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

According to the Codex committee, the maximum allowable level for lead in fruits is 0.1 mg/kg. This survey was conducted as a surveillance program following the establishment of safety guideline for fruits in Korea. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were measured in 927 samples using a ICP-MS and a mercury analyzer. The recoveries of microwave digestion method were 86.0-110.4% for Pb, 81.0-104.0% for Cd and 82.0- 104.7% for As by standard addition method. The recovery of direct mercury analyzer was 106.5% for Hg. The average levels of Pb in μg/kg were 10.0±12.8 for apple, 8.8±10.9 for pear, 4.1±4.4 for persimmons, 14.9±12.3 for mandarin, 7.1±6.5 for orange, 3.1±3.3 for banana, 8.8±8.9 for kiwi, and 9.3±9.7 for mango. The average levels of Cd in μg/kg were 0.4±0.3 for apple, 2.0±1.6 for pear, 0.3±0.3 for persimmon, 0.1±0.1 for mandarin, 0.1±0.1 for orange, 1.3±1.8 for banana, 0.5±0.5 for kiwi, and 0.7±0.6 for mango. The average levels of As in μg/kg were 2.0±2.1 for apple, 1.2±1.3 for pear, 1.5±1.1 for persimmon, 0.8±0.3 for mandarin, 1.0±0.5 for orange, 1.8±1.2 for banana, 1.6±1.5 for kiwi, and 1.5±1.2 for mango. The average levels of Hg in μg/kg were 0.5±0.4 for apple, 0.3±0.2 for pear, 0.2±0.1 for persimmon, 0.2±0.1 for mandarin, 0.2±0.1 for orange, 0.2±0.0 for banana, 0.2±0.2 for kiwi, and 0.6±0.2 for mango. Based on the Korean public nutrition report 2005, these levels (or amounts) are calculated only at 0.17% for Pb, 0.013% for Cd and 0.006% for Hg of those presented in provisional tolerable weekly Intake (PTWI) which has been established by FAO/WHO. Therefore, the levels presented here are presumed to be adequately safe. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.

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