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East London, South Africa

Marsh J.N.,University of Washington | Hu G.,University of Washington | Scott M.J.,University of Washington | Zhang H.,University of Washington | And 8 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Aim: To develop a fibrin-specific urokinase nanomedicine thrombolytic agent. Materials & Methods:In vitro fibrin-clot dissolution studies were utilized to develop and characterize simultaneous coupling and loading of anti-fibrin monoclonal antibody and urokinase onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticle (NP) surface. In vivo pharmacokinetics and fibrin-specific targeting of the nanolytic agent was studied in dogs. Results: Simultaneous coupling of up to 40 anti-fibrin antibodies and 400 urokinase enzymes per perfluorocarbon NP produced an effective targeted nanolytic agent with no significant surface protein-protein interference. Fibrin clot dissolution was not improved by increasing homing capacity from 10 to 40 antibodies/NP, but increasing enzymatic payload from 100 to 400/NP resulted in maximized lytic effect. Fluorescent microscopy showed that rhodamine-labeled urokinase nanoparticles densely decorated the intraluminal thrombus in canine clots in vivo analogous to the fibrin pattern, while an irrelevant-targeted agent had negligible binding. Conclusion: This agent offers a vascularly constrained, simple to administer, low-dose nanomedicine approach that may present an attractive alternative for treating acute stroke victims. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Guyot A.,Kings College London | Varnavas A.,Kings College London | Carrell T.,Guys & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Penney G.,Kings College London
Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention | Year: 2013

Overlay of preoperative images is increasingly being used to aid complex endovascular aortic repair and is obtained by rigid 2D-3D registration of 3D preoperative (CT) and 2D intraoperative (X-ray) data. However, for tortuous aortas large non-rigid deformations occur, thus a non-rigid registration must be performed to enable an accurate overlay. This article proposes the use of Thin-Plate Splines (TPS) to perform non-rigid 2D-3D registration. Intraoperative X-ray data contain no spatial information along the X-ray projection direction. Our approach accounts for this lack of spatial information by the use of an approximating TPS with non-isotropic error ellipsoids, where the major ellipsoid axis is aligned with the X-ray projection direction. Experiments are carried out using 1D-2D and 2D-3D simulated data and 2D-3D interventional data. Simulated results show that our proposed method is 1.5 times more accurate than interpolating TPS based registration. Interventional data results show how large rigid registration errors of 9mm can be reduced to 4mm using our proposed method. Source


Patent
Guys & St. Thomas Nhs Foundation Trust and King's College London | Date: 2014-02-24

A method for screening for variant peptides uses mass spectrometry (MS). A system and a kit may be used for performing the method. Proteins in a sample are digested to form a defined series of peptides. The defined series of peptides are ionized. The ionized species are subjected to collision induced dissociation. Species of known mass/charge ratio are detected to confirm the presence of the protein variant in the original sample.


Patent
King's College London and Guys & St. Thomas Nhs Foundation Trust | Date: 2013-03-01

Embodiments of the invention provide a system and method that is able to automatically provide a starting point for 2D to 3D image registration, without relying on human recognition of features shown in the 2D image. This is achieved by pre-processing the 3D data to obtain synthetically generated 2D images of those parts of the 3D data volume which will be used for registration purposes. Many different synthetically generated 2D images of the or each part of the 3D volume are produced, each from a different possible viewing direction. Each of these synthetic images is then subject to a feature extraction process to extract characterising feature data of the registration feature shown in the images. Once the feature extraction has been undertaken for each image, when registration is to be performed the real-time 2D image is processed by applying each of the sets of extracted features thereto, to try and identify which set best matches the registration features in the 2D image. For example, where a generalised Hough transform was used in the feature extraction, the R tables would be applied to the 2D image to obtain respective accumulation images. The accumulation images may then be ranked to identify which registration feature is shown in the 2-D image, and from which view direction. This gives the required information of which registration feature is being shown in the 2D image, and also the in-plane location and orientation. This information can then be used as a starting point for the 2D to 3D registration procedure.


Okera M.,Guys & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Chan S.,Guys & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Dernede U.,St. Georges Hospital NHS Trust | Larkin J.,Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia is a medical emergency complicating the treatment of many cancer patients. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as impacting on healthcare resources. Methods: A prospective study of all cases of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in the South West London Cancer Network was conducted over a 4-month period. Factors including demographics, treatment history, management of febrile neutropenia and outcome were recorded. Results and conclusion: Our results reflect those of the recent National Chemotherapy Advisory Group (NCEPOD, 2008)/National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death reports (NCAG, 2009) and highlight the need for network-wide clinical care pathways to improve outcomes in this area. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

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