PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Cologne, Breast Cancer Research, University of Houston and 115 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2016
We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor ) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
PubMed | University of Cologne, University Of Clermont Ferrand, Vilnius University, Fondazione Instituto Of Oncologia Molecolare Ifom and 103 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
Bramham K.,King's College London |
Thomas M.,Guys And St Thomas National Health Service Nhs Foundation Trust |
Nelson-Piercy C.,Foundation Medicine |
Khamashta M.,King's College London |
Hunt B.J.,Thrombosis and Haemostasis and Lupus Unit
Blood | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to assess pregnancy outcome in women with a history of refractory antiphospholipid antibody - associated pregnancy loss(es) who were treated with early low-dose prednisolone in addition to aspirin and heparin. Eighteen women with antiphospholipid antibodies who had refractory pregnancy loss(es) were given prednisolone (10 mg) from the time of their positive pregnancy test to 14 weeks' gestation. Before low-dose prednisolone was given as treatment, 4 (4%) of 97 pregnancies had resulted in live births. Among 23 pregnancies supplemented with prednisolone, 9 women had 14 live births (61%), including 8 uncomplicated pregnancies. The remainder were complicated by preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and/or small-for-gestational-age infants. There were 8 first-trimester miscarriages and 1 ectopic pregnancy. There were no fetal deaths after 10 weeks' gestation and no evidence of maternal morbidity. The addition of first-trimester low-dose prednisolone to conventional treatment is worthy of further assessment in the management of refractory antiphospholipid antibody - related pregnancy loss(es), although complications remain elevated. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.
Molife L.R.,Royal Marsden Hospital |
Rudman S.M.,Guys And St Thomas National Health Service Nhs Foundation Trust |
Alam S.,Royal Marsden Hospital |
Tan D.S.-W.,Royal Marsden Hospital |
And 11 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013
Purpose: Afatinib is an irreversible ErbB family blocker currently under evaluation in late-stage clinical trials. This study primarily assessed the cardiac safety, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of afatinib in cancer patients. Methods: In this multicenter, Phase II, open-label, single-arm trial, 60 patients with solid tumors who were expected to express epidermal growth factor receptor-1 and HER2 received oral afatinib 50 mg daily. QTcF intervals (QT interval corrected by the Fridericia formula) were evaluated based on electrocardiogram recordings time-matched with pharmacokinetic blood samples after single (Day 1) and continuous (Day 14; steady state) administration. Adverse events were classified according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE), version 3.0; antitumor activity was assessed using RECIST 1.0. Results: There was a nonsignificant decrease of 0.3 ms (90 % confidence interval -2.8, 2.3; N = 49) in the mean of the average time-matched QTcF interval from baseline to steady state. The maximum plasma concentration for afatinib was seen at median t max 3 h after both single dose and at steady state. No relationship between afatinib plasma concentrations and time-matched QTcF, QT and heart rate change was found. The overall adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of afatinib. One patient demonstrated a partial response (PR) and two patients unconfirmed PRs. Conclusions: Afatinib had no impact on cardiac repolarization, had a manageable safety profile and demonstrated antitumor activity in this uncontrolled study. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Barrington S.F.,King's College London |
Kirkwood A.A.,University College London |
Franceschetto A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia |
Fulham M.J.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital |
And 21 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2016
International guidelines recommend that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) should replace CT in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to compare PET-CT with CT for staging and measure agreement between expert and local readers, using a 5-point scale (Deauville criteria), to adapt treatment in a clinical trial: Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL). Patients were staged using clinical assessment, CT, and bone marrow biopsy (RATHL stage). PET-CT was performed at baseline (PET0) and after 2 chemotherapy cycles (PET2) in a response-adapted design.PET-CTwasreported centrally by experts at 5 national core laboratories. Local readers optionally scored PET2scans. TheRATHLand PET-CT stages were compared. Agreement among experts and between expert and local readers was measured. RATHL and PET0 stage were concordant in 938 (80%) patients. PET-CT upstaged 159 (14%) and downstaged 74 (6%) patients. Upstaging by extranodal disease in bone marrow (92), lung (11), or multiple sites (12) on PET-CT accounted for most discrepancies. Follow-up of discrepant findings confirmed the PET characterization of lesions in the vast majority. Five patients were upstaged by marrow biopsy and 7 by contrast-enhanced CT in the bowel and/or liver or spleen. PET2 agreement among experts (140 scans) with a k (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.76-0.91) was very good and between experts and local readers (300 scans) at 0.77 (0.68-0.86) was good. These results confirm PET-CT as the modern standard for staging HL and that response assessment using Deauville criteria is robust, enabling translation of RATHL results into clinical practice. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.