Mereles M.F.,Chilean Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnology |
Rodas O.,Guyra Paraguay
Climatic Change | Year: 2014
A large portion of the Occidental Region of Paraguay consists of a semi-arid territory with vegetation adapted to the features of this region. For just over a decade, a process of intense deforestation has resulted from the expansion of mechanized farming, carried out without any form of land management or planning; this has led to the fragmentation of the forests in this region. This study has taken satellite imagery from 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2007 with the purpose of determining the average size of the fragments and the rate of forest discontinuity; the results of this multi-temporal imagery analysis show that (a) in some areas of the Central Chaco, the forest matrix was transformed principally into cropped areas; (b) the majority of the fragments are isolated from one other; and (c) the areas mostly covered by forests are in the north-northeastern and northwestern areas and this is mainly as a result of a greater concentration of protected areas. In conclusion, the vulnerability of the vegetation formations increases with the fragmentation process, to which we should add an increased frequency of fires, a reduced resilience and homeostasis of the vegetation formations; thus these are highly exposed to climate change factors. It is imperative that the forest landscapes be restored, through the implementation biological corridors, to ensure the continuity of the remaining forests. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Goh T.Y.,University of East Anglia |
Yanosky A.,Guyra Paraguay
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2016
This study evaluated Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) implementation in a smallholder settlement in an Atlantic forest reserve in Paraguay, designed to stop and reverse deforestation due to expansion of subsistence agriculture, which was identified to be the main deforestation or forest degradation threat that may spread beyond the settlement. However, an analysis to test the additionality of PES revealed that the carrying capacity of agriculture in La Amistad prior to PES implementation in 2009 was 4969 people, much higher than the 2009 population size of 472. This implied that agricultural expansion beyond the settlement was unlikely to occur even without PES and that the main threat was something else. Despite this, PES was shown, via linear model construction, to decrease agricultural expansion (β = - 0.292) alongside household age (β. =. -. 0.256). Conversely, if households perceived themselves to have received help in having alternative sources of income, agricultural expansion increased (β. =. 0.395). These findings warn that any help rendered has to be carefully designed to prevent it from being counter-effective against forest conservation. The final linear model explained only 29.8% of agricultural expansion, suggesting a need to investigate effects of other intervention measures on other threats for more effective forest conservation. © 2015 The Authors.
Cruz P.,National University of Misiones |
Paviolo A.,National University of Misiones |
Bo R.F.,University of Buenos Aires |
Thompson J.J.,Guyra Paraguay |
Di Bitetti M.S.,National University of Misiones
Mammalian Biology | Year: 2014
We studied the daily activity pattern and habitat use of the lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris and their relationship with environmental and anthropic variables. We used photographic records of tapirs obtained during five camera-trap surveys conducted in three areas of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina that differ in their protection against poaching. The daily activity pattern was analyzed with circular statistics and linear regression. The effect of protection against poaching and environmental variables on habitat use of tapirs was analyzed using occupancy modeling. Tapirs were nocturnal all year round, with 89% of the records between 1800. h and 0700. h. The proportion of nocturnal records and the recording rate did not change with mean daily temperature. The daily activity pattern of tapirs was not affected by the sex of the individuals, the lunar cycle or the protection level of the area. The probability of detecting tapirs increased with the distance to the nearest access points for poachers and decreased with the abundance of bamboo in the understory and increasing trail width. The probability of use of an area by tapirs increased with increasing protection against poaching and distance to the nearest access points for poachers. These results suggest that poaching is one of the factors with significant effect on habitat use by tapirs but not on their daily activity patterns. © 2014 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.