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Gurye gun, South Korea

Park S.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Lee G.-E.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Corni fructus is often distributed or processed in the form of dried fruit. However, Corni fructus is hard to develop due to its distinctive sour, bitter, and astringent taste. The aim of this study was to develop a puree to broaden the utilization of fresh Corni fructus. Manufacturing and quality characteristics of Sansuyu jam made from puree were investigated. Seeded Corni fructus pulp consisted of 20 to 26% whole fruit. The moisture and sugar contents of pulp were 52∼63% and 15∼31°Brix, respectively. Sterilized distilled water was added to seeded pulp to achieve a constant solids content in the puree. As the pectin content was low as 0.14±0.01%, gelling agent was added to produce jam. The moisture content of the puree increased to 83∼88%. The sugar content was reduced to 10°Brix. There was no significant difference in pH. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the puree according to ripening rate at a concentration of 100 ppm were 47.92% and 50.96%, respectively. The preference degree was 5.03±0.97 at a ripening ratio of 50:50, 2% pectin, and 0.2% carrageenan. These results imply that Corni fructus pulp puree may be appropriate for development as a natural food product. © 2016, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved. Source

Jeong J.-S.,Korea University | Jeong J.-W.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jung Y.-K.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2016

The Kalopanax septemlobus leaf (Thunb.) Koidz. has been used as a traditional medicine herb for the treatment of various human diseases for hundreds of years. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of an ethanol extract of K. septemlobus leaf (EEKS) on proliferation of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether HepG2 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS concentration-dependently reduced cell survival while significantly increasing the ratio of apoptotic cells. EEKS treatment increased the levels of the death receptors (DRs), DR4 and DR5, and activated caspases, as well as promoting proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase associated with the downregulation of protein expression of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family. Treatment with EEKS also caused truncation of Bid, translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. However, treatment of HepG2 cells with a pan-caspase inhibitor reversed EEKS-induced apoptosis and growth suppression, indicating that EEKS appears to induce apoptosis though a caspase-dependent mechanism involving both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was elevated when cells were exposed to EEKS. A specific inhibitor for AMPK attenuated the EEKS-induced activation of caspases, and consequently prevented the EEKS-induced apoptosis and reduction in cell viability. Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS inhibits the growth of HepG2 cells by inducing AMPK-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of EEKS in the treatment or prevention of cancers. Source

Park C.,Korea University | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Jeong J.-S.,Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-W.,Korea University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: To investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. leaf (EEKS) on cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its mechanisms of action. Methods: Cells were treated with EEKS and subsequently analyzed for cell proliferation and flow cytometry analysis. Expressions of cell cycle regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting, and activation of cyclin-associated kinases studied using kinase assays. Results: The EEKS suppressed cell proliferation in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, but showed a more sensitive anti-proliferative activity in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an association between the growth inhibitory effect of EEKS and with G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells, along with the dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and enhanced binding of pRB with the E2F transcription factor family proteins. Treatment with EEKS also increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, without any noticeable changes in G1 cyclins and CDKs (except for a slight decrease in CDK4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS also increased the binding of p21 and p27 with CDK4 and CDK6, which was paralleled by a marked decrease in the cyclin D- and cyclin E-associated kinase activities. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS may be an effective treatment for liver cancer through suppression of cancer cell proliferation via G1 cell cycle arrest. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in EEKS. © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Source

Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Park N.-J.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Go G.-B.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Son B.-G.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study investigated changes in physicochemical characteristics by drying and fermentation in order to utilize Actinidia arguta. Moisture content of A. arguta was 85.81%. Major sugar and organic acids were sucrose, succinic acid, and citric acid. A. arguta contained 19 kinds of amino acids, including 8 kinds of essential amino acids such as valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and lysine. For total organic acids, sample fermented for 17 h at 50°C under a relative humidity of 80% showed 29,026.53 mg/100 g total organic acids. For total free sugars, cold-dried sample showed the highest level at 6,560.86 mg/100 g, which decreased to 2,386.73 mg/100 g after blanching. For the ratio of essential amino acids, freeze-dried sample showed a content of 11.66%, which increased 4-fold up to 40.71∼55.50% with fermentation. Both GABA and vitamin U were highest after 17 h of fermentation (110.29 mg and 6.78 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively). A. arguta contains a variety of free amino acids that increase in amount after fermentation and thus is expected to be developed as a functional food and substitute tea. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved. Source

Kim Y.-J.,Wild Flower Institute of Research and Development of Resources | Jeong J.-S.,Wild Flower Institute of Research and Development of Resources | Park N.-J.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Go G.-B.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Son B.-G.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

This study examined changes in antioxidant activity as well as contents of rosmarinic acid, homoplantaginin, and luteolin, which is the main substance of Salvia plebeia R. Br. (SPR) known to have anti-inflammatory efficacy, according to drying, blanching, and fermentation conditions. Rosmarinic acid content was 16.42 mg/g upon hot-air drying and 10.19 mg/g upon hot-air drying after blanching, and there was no significant difference in the case of leaf and root freezing or cold-air drying. Rosmarinic acid content was 8.69 and 8.15 mg/g in the case of air-drying in the shade and freeze-drying, respectively, and decreased to 0.05 mg/g or undetected after fermentation. SPR processed by freeze-drying, cold-air drying in the shade, and hot-air drying showed ABTS radical scavenging ability over 98.5% at a concentration over 500 μg/mL as well as excellent radical scavenging ability of 87.3% in the case of hot-air drying after blanching. Root showed lower ABTS radical scavenging ability than leaves. SOD-like activity was measured to be 6.1~27.8% at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL, which was significantly difference from ABTS radical scavenging ability. As rosmarinic acid and homoplantagine, an anti-inflammatory material contained in SPR, are almost undetectable after oxidation fermentation during processing, hot-air drying after blanching or drying seems to be suitable to develop SPR as a functional substance. © 2014, J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. All rights reserved. Source

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