Gurukula Kangri University

Haridwar, India

Gurukula Kangri University

Haridwar, India

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Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Singh R.G.,University of Delhi | Purohit L.P.,Gurukula Kangri University | Mehra R.M.,Sharda University
Journal of Materials Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The paper has reported the structural, transport and optical properties of boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films grown on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating process. It is observed from the analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results that the crystalline quality of the films is improved with increasing B concentration. A crystallite size of ∼17 nm is obtained for B doped films. A minimum resistivity of 7.9×l0-4 Ω·cm is obtained at 0.6 at.% of B concentration in the ZnO:B films. Ionized and intragrain cluster scattering are found to dominate the scattering mechanism in ZnO:B films. Optical interference pattern in transmittance spectra shows good homogeneity with a transparency of ∼88% in the visible region. The band gap of the films is increased from 3.24 to 3.35 eV with increasing B concentration. Band gap widening is analyzed in terms of Burstein-Moss shift. The origin of the broad band photoluminescence (PL) spectra is explained in terms of the intragrain cluster scattering. © 2011 The Chinese Society for Metals.

Pathak C.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University | Srivastava S.,Gurukula Kangri University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

The present study on heavy metal contamination in soil and their accumulation in edible part (leaves) and roots of Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) on irrigation with paper mill effluent (PME)/sewage revealed that there was significant increase in the nickel (Ni, +227.17 %) content of the soil irrigated with PME, whereas in the soil irrigated with sewage chromium (Cr, +274.84 %), iron (Fe, +149.56 %), and cadmium (Cd, +133.39 %), contents were increased appreciably. The value of enrichment factor (EF) for Ni (3.27) indicated moderate enrichment in PME-irrigated soil. The EF of Fe, zinc (Zn), Cd, and Cr were <2 in PME effluent-irrigated soil which showed deficiency of minimal enrichment. In sewage irrigated soil, EF value for Cr, Fe, and Cd indicated moderate enrichment, while the values for Zn and Ni indicated deficiency of minimal enrichment. Among various metallic concentrations, the maximum concentration of Fe was observed in leaves (400.12 ± 11.47 mg/kg) and root (301.41 ± 13.14 mg/kg) of S. oleracea after irrigation with PME, whereas the maximum concentrations of Fe was found in leaves (400.49 ± 5.97 mg/kg) and root (363.94 ± 11.37 mg/kg) of S. oleracea after irrigation with sewage for 60 days. The bioaccumulation factor value was found maximum for Cd (2.23) in the plants irrigated with PME while that of Fe (0.90) in the plants irrigated with sewage. The undiluted use of PME/sewage for irrigation increased the concentration of Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Fe metals which were accumulated in S. oleracea, posing a potential threat to human health from this practice of irrigation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p < 0.01) changes to soil characteristics were observed. The maximum growth of P. vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in P. vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Negi R.K.,Gurukula Kangri University | Mamgain S.,Gurukula Kangri University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Present investigation was carried out to assess the seasonal variation of benthic macro-invertebrates from the Tons river, a tributary of Yamuna River in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttrakhand during December, 2007 to November, 2009. The seasonal benthic diversity was correlated with various physic-chemical parameters which documented that the macrobenthic diversity is mostly regulated by the dissolved oxygen in the water while temperature and free C02 were found to be inversely correlated with the benthic fauna. Maximum diversity of benthos was reported at the upstream site ('H' 0.204) during the winter season while it was recorded minimum during the rainy season at all the sites. Maximum diversity is reported during the winter season at all the sites. The benthic fauna is represented by three phylum, 4 classes and 10 orders with Insecta emerging as the most dominant class. Maximum genera were reported from midstream site as it acts as ecotone between upstream and downstream. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

The fertigation effect of distillery effluents concentrations such as 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied on Trigonella foenu-graecu (Pusa early bunching) along with control (bore well water). On irrigation of soil with different effluents up to 90 days of harvesting, it was observed that there was a significant effect on moisture content (P < 0.001), EC, pH, Cl -, total organic carbon (TOC), HCO 3 -, CO 3 -2, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Fe 2+, TKN, NO 3 2-, PO 4 3-, and SO 4 2- (P < 0.0001) and insignificant effect on WHC and bulk density (P > 0.05).There was no significant change in the soil texture of the soil. Among various concentrations of effluent irrigation, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased pH (16.66%) and increased moisture content (30.82%), EC(84.13%), Cl - (292.37%), TOC (4311.61%), HCO 3 - (27.76%), CO 3 -2 (32.63%), Na + (273%), K + (31.59%), Ca 2+ (729.76%), Mg 2+ (740.47%), TKN (1723.32%), NO 3 2- (98.02%), PO 4 3- (337.79%), and SO 4 2- (77.78%), Fe 2+ (359.91%), Zn (980.48%), Cu (451.51%), Cd (3033.33%), Pb (2350.00%), and Cr (2375.00%) in the soil. The agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, crop yield, and HI of T. foenum-graecum were recorded to be in increasing order at low concentration of the effluent, i.e., from 5% to 50% and in decreasing order at higher effluent concentration, i.e., from 75% to 100% as compared to control. The enrichment factor of various heavy metals was ordered for soil Cd>Cr> Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe and for T. foenum-graecum plants Pb>Cr>Cd>Cu>Zn>Fe after irrigation with distillery effluent. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The present investigation was conducted to monitor the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of Municipal Wastewater (MWW) at treatment plant, Haridwar, installed under Ganga Action Plan (GAP)/National River Action Plan (NRAP) to control the pollution of river Ganga. The results revealed that the untreated MWW has high inorganic and organic pollution load. The treatment plant received the MWW from various Sewage Pumping Stations (SPSs) being treated through different stages viz. primary (physical), secondary (chemical) and tertiary (disinfection) treatments. In the present study, a significant (p<0.001) decrease was observed in the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters viz. turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Chlorides (Cl -), alkalinity, hardness, free carbon dioxide (CO 2), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), phosphate (PO 4 3-), sulphate (SO 4 2-), iron (Fe 2+), Most Probable Number (MPN) and Standard Plate Count (SPC) after treatment. The Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) were also recorded to be significantly (p<0.01) decreased in treated MWW. The maximum removal of turbidity (66.92%), TSS (88.37%), EC (89.43%), pH (14.18%), BOD (91.31%), COD (91.84%), CT (86.76%), alkalinity (90.42%), hardness (39.06%), free CO 2 (79.23%), TKN (71.40%), PO 4 3- (90.16%), SO 4 2- (85.90%), Fe 2+ (95.86%), Zn (95.06%), Cd (87.50%), Cu (92.30%), Ni (91.30%), Cr (85.71%) and MPN (99.99%) and SPC (99.99%) of MWW were recorded after final treatment. The maximum increase in DO (135.28%) was recorded in finally treated (outlet) wastewater. Thus the treatment plant had a significant role in the control of pollution loads of wastewater installed under GAP/ NRAP at Haridwar city. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chamoli S.,Gurukula Kangri University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticides in rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

Seven rates of paper mill effluent (viz., 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were used for irrigation of V. radiata (mung bean) along with a control (bore well water). The effluent had significant (P < 0.001) effects on electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chlorides (Cl -), organic carbon (OC), bicarbonates (HCO 3 -), carbonates (CO 3 2-), sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium (Mg 2+), iron (Fe 2+), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate (NO 3 2-), phosphate (PO 4 3-), sulfate (SO 4 2-), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) and insignificant (P > 0.05) effects on moisture content, water-holding capacity (WHC), and bulk density (BD) in both the cultivated seasons: rainy (Kharif) and summer (Zaid) season. The agronomical performance of V. radiata was increased from 5% to 50% in the rainy season and 5% to 25% in the summer season as compared to the control. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various heavy metals were ordered for soil as Pb > Cd, Cr > Zn > Cu in rainy season and Pb > Cd > Zn > Cr > Cu in summer season and for V. radiata plants as Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd in rainy season and Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd in summer season after irrigation with paper mill effluent. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Singh R.G.,University of Delhi | Singh F.,Inter University Accelerator Center | Kumar V.,Gurukula Kangri University | Mehra R.M.,University of Delhi
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we report temperature dependent studies of ZnO nanocrystallites deposited by the sol-gel spin coating process. The films are annealed at different temperature from 500 to 900 °C to grow the size of crystallites in controlled environment. The crystallite size, lattice parameters, and strain in the nanocrystallites are calculated. A coarsening kinetics is understood by Lifshitz, Slyozov and Wagner (LSW) theory and the activation energy of the coarsening process is estimated. Optical absorption and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of coarsening on optical properties of the ZnO thin films. The origin of PL spectra is explained in terms of the stabilization of structural defects and size of the crystallites. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chopra A.K.,Gurukula Kangri University | Pathak C.,Gurukula Kangri University
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

The present study revealed that there was an increase in the metal contents (Ni, +70.45 %), (Cd, +34.15 %), (Cr, +20.46 %), (Zn, +14.27 %) and (Fe, +2.39 %) of soil irrigated with sugar mill effluent (SME). The enrichment factor (EF) of the soil was in the order of Ni (3.38) > Cd (1.34) > Cr (1.21) > Zn (1.14) > Fe (1.02). In case of leaves and root of Spinacea oleracea grown in the SME irrigated soil, the maximum concentration of metallic contents of Zn (87.14 ± 3.77 mg/kg), Fe (246.14 ± 3.14 mg/kg), and Cr (28.87 ± 1.73 mg/kg) were found in leaves and that of Cd (16.32 ± 0.42 mg/kg) and Ni (62.29 ± 3.45 mg/kg) in root. The EF value was found maximum for Cd in comparison to other metals in case of the leaves (EF-2.18) and in root (EF-2.99) irrigated with SME. The translocation factor (TF) value was found maximum for Zn (TF-2.82) for the soil irrigated with SME in comparison to soil irrigated with bore well water. The study has shown that the SME can be a source of contamination to the soil as some toxic metals may also be translocated to roots and then to leaves in S. oleracea. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

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