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Sharma V.K.,Gurukul Kangri University | Mazumder B.,Dibrugarh University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Isabgol husk with sodium alginate was formulated into gliclazide loaded microparticles which were characterized for particle size, swelling index, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, release kinetics, stability, hypoglycemic effect, surface morphology, and gastrointestinal transition. The particle size in different formulations varied from 752.83±0.630 to 872.03±0.293μm. It was analyzed by dissolution study that up to 98% of loaded gliclazide was released in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.4) within 8h. The formulations containing sodium alginate and Isabgol husk-sodium alginate showed bioequivalency with marketed sustained release tablets (Glizid MR 60®) in terms of release pattern. The drug maintained its integrity in terms of functional groups after fabrication in formulations as observed by FTIR analysis. The hypoglycemic effect of gliclazide loaded Isabgol husk-sodium alginate microparticles was found to be 37±6.356% in terms of changes of blood glucose level from base glucose level (100%) in diabetic condition after 24h of oral administration and it was more than marketed conventional tablets (95.5±3.286%). The retention of microparticles was observed in small intestine up to 10h during whole body X-ray imaging. The study revealed that microparticles composing of Isabgol husk may have the potential for regulating blood glucose level in diabetic animals with controlled release of gliclazide. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar K.,Gurukul Kangri University
Proceedings - 2014 6th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks, CICN 2014 | Year: 2014

Self-organizing map (SOM), an unsupervised learning way of artificial neural network, plays a very important role for classification and clustering of inputs. The property of SOM, also called topology-preserving maps or self-organizing feature map (SOFM), is observed in human brain which is not found in other artificial neural networks. Aircrafts' crossing points between two airports may generate conflicts when their trajectories converge on it at the same time and induce a risk of collision. This risk of collision can be avoided by using the self organizing map neural network clustering algorithm. This paper presents the computation of automatic balanced sectoring of airspace to decrease collision and increase air traffic control capacity in high density traffic airspace area. Moreover, SOM is found better technique in comparison to the ART1 neural networks & genetic algorithm used earlier for the same problem. © 2014 IEEE.

Kumar A.,Gurukul Kangri University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical constituents and biological activities of key constituents in essential oil from the rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga L. which was collected from the Himalayan region of India. The essential oil from the rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga L. was isolated by steam distillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique for the identification of its chemical composition. Total 50 compounds were identified. The major constituent was ethyl cinnamate (29.48%), and other predominant constituents were ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (18.42%), γ- cadinene (9.81%), 1, 8-cineole (6.54%), δ-carene (6.19%), borneol (5.21%), ethyl-m-methoxycinnamate (2.15%), camphene (1.58%), linoleoyl chloride (1.35%) and α-pinene (1.32%). The results suggest essential oil isolated from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizomes possess significant biological activities like antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, anti-tuberculosis, larvicidal and insecticidal. The oil may be useful in perfumery, pharmaceuticals and in aromatherapy as inhalants and massage to reduce anxiety, stress and depression.

Pathak V.V.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Pathak V.V.,Gurukul Kangri University | Singh D.P.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Kothari R.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Chopra A.K.,Gurukul Kangri University
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

The potential application of microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated for phycoremediation of textile wastewater. Two 15 days batch experiment containing autoclaved and unautoclaved textile wastewater were performed to measure the efficiency of alga to remediate the wastewater. Experiments were set at equivalent external conditions and pollutant load was measured on alternate of 5 days to determine the pollutant removal efficiency of alga. Alga was found to be more efficient in removal of pollutants load in autoclaved wastewater; agents of eutrophication such as nitrate and phosphate are reduced by 62% ±0.5 and 87% ±0.7 respectively while organic load in terms of BOD is reduced by 81% ±0.2 whereas, In unautoclaved wastewater in presence of algal-bacterial consortium, nitrate and phosphate were removed by 81% ±1 and 36% ±2.2 while BOD is reduced by 73% ±1.6 only. Another time dependent experiment of dye removal was also performed to measure the adsorption potential of selected dried algal biomass. An equal amount of dried algal biomass was introduced to various range of textile wastewater simulated with methylene blue (MB) dye. The maximum colour removal was observed afterduration of 30 minutes by dry algal biomass. © 2014.

Goel A.,Gurukul Kangri University | Sharma S.,Gurukul Kangri University
Transition Metal Chemistry | Year: 2010

The oxidation of L-phenylalanine by hexacyanoferrate(III) (abbreviated as HCF) catalyzed by Ir(III) has been studied spectrophotometrically at 35 °C and at a constant ionic strength of 0.50 mol dm -3. The main oxidation product was identified as phenylpyruvic acid by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The stoichiometry was found to be 2:1, i.e. 2 mol of hexacyanoferrate(III) reacted with 1 mol of phenylalanine. The reaction was first order with respect to both HCF and alkali concentration. The order with respect to [Phe] changed from first to zero as the concentration was increased. The effect of ionic strength was also investigated. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated by studying the reaction at four different temperatures between 35 and 50 °C. Based on the experimental results, a suitable mechanism involving complex formation has been proposed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Gupta V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Nayak A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Agarwal S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Chaudhary M.,Gurukul Kangri University | Tyagi I.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2014

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of scrap tire as adsorbent for removal of nickel ions from water. The activated carbon prepared showed porous morphology and favorable surface chemistry for binding to Ni 2 + ions. Batch studies demonstrated that under laboratory conditions, a 0.5 g/L adsorbent dose was found to be optimum at a pH of 7, contact time of 50 mins and temperature of 55 C for achieving ≥ 95% Ni 2 + removal from synthetic solution containing 0.1 ppm Ni 2 + concentration. Practical applications using a metal fabricating industrial wastewater revealed that the developed adsorbent has the capability of removing not only 95% of Ni2 + ions but also other toxic metal ions present were removed to a significant extent. Langmuir isotherm model parameters showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 25 mg/g with the developed adsorbent under optimum conditions for Ni2 + removal. The adsorption process is believed to proceed by an initial surface adsorption followed by intraparticle diffusion. Thermodynamic studies revealed the feasibility and endothermic nature of the system. The results of the present study suggest that scrap tire can be used beneficially for nickel removal from aqueous solution. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sharma V.K.,Gurukul Kangri University | Mazumder B.,Dibrugarh University
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2014

The microspheres were prepared by emulsification method using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker. The effects of variables as temperature, concentration of Isabgol husk and glutaraldehyde, and nature of dispersing media were analyzed on microsphere-derived properties such as size distribution, surface morphology, and swelling kinetics. The nature of crosslinking and interaction of polysaccharides structure with glutaraldehyde were assessed by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The spherical and free flowing microspheres were obtained and a significant effect of process variables was observed on characteristics of formulations. The microspheres revealed their potential in the development of sustained release drug carriers for water soluble/insoluble drugs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Paul S.,Daegu University | Dubey R.C.,Gurukul Kangri University | Maheswari D.K.,Gurukul Kangri University | Kang S.C.,Daegu University
Food Control | Year: 2011

This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-bacterial potential of the essential oil and extracts of Trachyspermum ammi fruits against food borne and spoilage bacteria. The chemical compositions of the oil were analyzed by GC-MS. Thirty compounds representing 91.39% of the total oil were identified. The extracellular ATP concentration, release of cell constituents and potassium ions from the bacterial cell were measured after treatment with essential oil of T. ammi at MIC concentration. The oil, and extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol of T. ammi fruits displayed remarkable anti-bacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC 2515, Enterobactor aerogens KCTC 2190 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. The scanning electron microscopic studies also demonstrated inhibitory effect of the oil on the morphology of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 at the MIC concentration, along with the potential effect on cell viabilities of the tested bacteria. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma V.K.,Gurukul Kangri University | Sarwa K.K.,Dibrugarh University | Mazumder B.,Dibrugarh University
Journal of Liposome Research | Year: 2014

Liposomes are well known lipid carriers for drug delivery of bioactive molecules encapsulated inside their membrane. Liposomes as skin drug delivery systems were initially promoted primarily for localized effects with minimal systemic delivery. Subsequently, a novel vesicular system, transferosomes was reported for transdermal delivery with efficiency similar to subcutaneous injection. The multiple bilayered organizations of lipids applied in these vesicles structure are somewhat similar to complex nature of stratum corneal intercellular lipids domains. The incorporation of novel agents into these lipid vesicles results in the loss of entrapped markers but it is similar to fluidization of stratum corneum lipids on treatment with a penetration enhancer. This approach generated the utility of penetration enhancers/fluidizing agents in lipids vesicular systems for skin delivery. For the transdermal and topical applications of liposomes, fluidity of bilayer lipid membrane is rate limiting which governs the permeation. This article critically reviews the relevance of using different types of vesicles as a model for skin in permeation enhancement studies. This study has also been designed to encompass all enhancement measurements and analytical tools for characterization of permeability in liposomal vesicular system. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Sharma V.K.,Gurukul Kangri University | Mazumdar B.,Dibrugarh University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Gums, resins, mucilages, latex are common constituents of plants secretions that are utilized in food, textile, and leather industries for their versatile applicability. Some of these also have their significant impact in food and pharmaceutical sector due to their biocompatibility, safety, low cost, biodegradability. The gummy exudates of Cochlospermum religiosum has also been applied as excipient in drug delivery devices and may have the potential of exploration in novel drug delivery development. In the present study, various physicochemical properties such as particle-size distribution, thermal behavior, powder flow characterization, acidic volatility estimation, moisture sorption, microbial load, accelerated stability study, hydration capacity were studied. The rheological behavior of the exudate was also studied in different strength by rheokinetics models. The acute and subacute toxicity study of gum was also performed in albino rats through oral administration. The Fourier transform infrared spectrogram showed the presence of polysaccharide structure in exudate and the thermal behavior was also completed in three stages of decomposition confirming the polysaccharide nature of exudate. The results of study revealed the safety and non-toxic nature of gum in terms of enzymological and hematological parameters. Increment in shear stress on increasing shear rate confirmed the pseudoplastic nature that may be a suitable characteristic for sustained release drug delivery devices. All other parameters studied also emphasized the applicability and suitability of gummy exudate of Cochlospermum religiosum as a multifunctional, versatile novel bio-excipient for formulation development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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