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DebMandal M.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Mandal S.,Gurudas College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.


Mandal S.,Gurudas College | Deb Mandal M.,KPC Medical College and Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasite Echincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus) infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle of E. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion of E. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals. © 2012 Hainan Medical College.


Mandal M.D.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Mandal S.,Gurudas College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Gopal P.K.,Gurudas College | Paul M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Paul S.,Gurudas College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Curcumin has has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-angiogenic activity in various types of cancer. It has also been shown to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells. We aimed to unravel the role of the redox pathway in Curcumin mediated apoptosis with a panel of human leukemic cells. Materials and Methods: In this study in vitro cytotoxicity of Curcumin was measured by MTT assay and apoptotic effects were assessed by annexin V/PI, DAPI staining, cell cycle analysis, measurement of caspase activity and PARP cleavage. Effects of Curcumin on intracellular redox balance were assessed using fluorescent probes like H2DCFDA, JC1 and an ApoGSH Glutathione Detection Kit respectively. Results: Curcumin showed differential anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on different human leukemic cell lines in contrast to minimal effects on normal cells. Curcumin induced apoptosis was associated with the generation of intracellular ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular GSH depletion, caspase activation. Conclusions: As Curcumin induces programmed cell death specifically in leukemic cells it holds a great promise as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of leukemia.


Adhikary B.,Gurudas College | Chakraborty M.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Ghosal A.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We investigate the "scaling Ansatz" in the neutrino sector within the framework of a type-I seesaw mechanism with diagonal charged lepton and right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices (M R). We also assume the four zero texture of Dirac neutrino mass matrices (m D) which severely constrain the phenomenological outcomes of such schemes. The scaling Ansatz and the present neutrino data allow only six such matrices out of 126 four zero Yukawa matrices. In this scheme, in order to generate large θ 13, we break the scaling Ansatz in m D through a perturbation parameter and we also show that our breaking scheme is radiatively stable. We further investigate CP violation and baryogenesis via leptogenesis in those surviving textures. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Background: Development of resistance to chemical pesticides among the mosquito vectors leads researchers to investigate the potential mosquito control efficacy of various plant extracts. Aim: To assess the larvicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss; Meliaceae) seed extract and oil against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Family: Culicidae). Materials and Methods. In order to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50), following probit analysis the fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to A. indica seed extract and oil in different concentrations ranging from 2 to 64 μg/ml, and larval mortality was observed for each concentration after 24 hours of treatment. The median lethal time (LT50) values for a single concentration (2 x LC50) of oil and extract were determined based upon probit analysis. Results: The 100 % larval mortality was observed due to both A. indica seed oil and extract at concentrations 32 μg/ml and 64 μg/ml, respectively. The A. indica oil and extract had LC50 values 8.041 and 15.495 μg/ml, respectively, and the LT50 values were 8.328 and 15.322 min, respectively. Conclusion: The A. indica seed oil and extract showed excellent larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, and thus the products can be used effectively as indigenous mosquito control agents, alternative to conventional chemical mosquito larvicides. © 2011 Mandal S.


Adhikary B.,Gurudas College | Chakraborty M.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Ghosal A.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

General Majorana neutrino mass matrix is complex symmetric and for three generations of neutrinos it contains 12 real parameters. We diagonalize this general neutrino mass matrix and express the three neutrino masses, three mixing angles, one Dirac CP phase and two Majorana phases (removing three unphysical phases) in terms of the neutrino mass matrix elements. We apply the results in the context of a neutrino mass matrix derived from a broken cyclic symmetry invoking type-I seesaw mechanism. Phenomenological study of the above mass matrix allows enough parameter space to satisfy the neutrino oscillation data with only 10% breaking of this symmetry. In this model only normal mass hierarchy is allowed. In addition, the Dirac CP phase and the Majorana phases are numerically estimated. Σmi and |m?ee| are also calculated. © SISSA 2013.


Nandi K.,Gurudas College | Mazumdar C.,Jadavpur University
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014

Recently Yang et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48:516, 2009) had shown that using a particular type of GHZ- Like state as quantum channel, it is possible to teleport an arbitrary unknown qubit. We investigate this channel for the teleportation of a particular type of two qubit state. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Objective: To determine the larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of castor (Ricinus communis) seed extract against three potential mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) in India. Methods: The R. communis seed extract was tested, employing WHO procedure, against fourth larval instars of the three mosquito species for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (2-64 μg/mL); the 24 h LC50 values of the R. communis seed extract were determined following Probit analysis. The larval killing, antipupation and adult emergence inhibition rates of the test extract, using a single concentration of 2 μ LC50, were studied at different time periods (24-72 h); the extract toxicity was tested against a fish, Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Results: The R. communis seed extract exhibited larvicidal effects with 100 % killing activities at concentrations 32-64 μg/mL, and with LC50 values 7.10, 11.64 and 16.84 μg/mL for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. albopictus larvae, respectively. When the larvae were treated with the extract at a single concentration of 2×LC50, significant differences were observed, compared to control groups, in rate of pupation (P<0.001) as well as in adult formation (P<0.001). Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the R. communis seed extract provided an excellent potential for controlling An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus mosquito vectors. © 2010 Hainan Medical College.


Objective: To evaluate the repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica (A. indica)seed oil against filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) from Purulia district of the West Bengal state, India. Methods: The repellent activity of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils (using coconut oil base) against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito were evaluated in indoor conditions. Three concentrations, 0%, 50% and 100% (v/v) of both the agents were considered in the studies. The protection percentage was determined, and the protection time was recorded. Results: The test oils showed excellent repellent action against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The A. indica seed oil provided 90.26% and 88.83% protection, and the Eucalyptus oil 93.37% and 92.04%, at concentrations 50% and 100% (v/v), respectively, with the protection time up to 240 min. There was no bite within 120 min and 180 min, respectively, due to the action of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils as topical repellents against Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

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