Gurucharan College

Cachar, India

Gurucharan College

Cachar, India

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Das Astapati A.,Gurucharan College | Das A.K.,Assam University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Imperata grassland at Dorgakona, Barak valley, North Eastern India was analyzed for species composition and diversity pattern in relation to traditional management practices. 19 families were in the burnt and unburnt plots of the study site with Poaceae as the most dominant one. 29 species occurred in the burnt plot and 28 in the unburnt plot. Most of the species were common in both the plots. The pattern of frequency diagrams indicated that the vegetation was homogeneous. Imperata cylindrica, a rhizomatous grass was the dominant species based on density (318.75 and 304.18 nos. m-2), basal cover (158.22 and 148.34 cm2 m-2) and Importance value index (IVI) (132.64 and 138.74) for the burnt and unburnt plots respectively. Borreria pusilla was the co-dominant species constituting Imperata-Borreria assemblage of the studied grassland. It was observed that B. pusilla (162.25 nos. m-2 and 50.37 nos. m-2),/. cylindrica (318.75 nos. m-2 and 304.18 nos. m-2) and Setaria glauca (24.70 nos. m-2 and 16.46 nos. m-2) were benefited from burning as shown by the values sequentially placed for burnt and unburnt plots. Certain grasses like Chrysopogon aciculatus and Sacciolepis indica were restricted to burnt plot while Oxalis corniculata showed its presence to unburnt plot. Grasses dominated the grassland as revealed by their contribution to the mean percentage cover of 72% in burnt plot and 76% in unburnt plot. The dominance-diversity curves in the study site approaches a log normal series distribution suggesting that the resources are shared by the constituent species. Seasonal pattern in diversity index suggested definite influence of climatic seasonality on species diversity; rainy season was conducive for maximum diversity (1.40 and 1.38 in the burnt and unburnt plots, respectively). Dominance increased with concentration of fewer species (0.0021 in burnt plot and 0.0055 in unburntplot) in summer and behaves inversely to index of diversity. This study showed that the traditional management practices benefits the farmers as it promote grassland regeneration with I. cylindrica as the dominant grass. © Triveni Enterprises.


Nath J.,Gurucharan College | Nath J.,Assam University | Ghosh S.K.,Assam University | Singha B.,Gurucharan College | Paul J.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Epidemiological studies carried out using culture or microscopy in most of the amoebiasis endemic developing countries, yielded confusing results since none of these could differentiate the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. The Northeastern part of India is a hot spot of infection since the climatic conditions are most conducive for the infection and so far no systemic study has been carried out in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a cross-sectional study designed during the period 2011–2014, a total of 1260 fecal samples collected from the Northeast Indian population were subjected to microscopy, fecal culture and a sensitive and specific DNA dot blot screening assay developed in our laboratory targeting the Entamoeba spp. Further species discrimination using PCR assay performed in microscopy, culture and DNA dot blot screening positive samples showed E. histolytica an overall prevalence rate of 11.1%, 8.0% and 13.7% respectively. In addition, infection rates of nonpathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were 11.8% (95% CI = 10.2, 13.8) and 7.8% (95% CI = 6.4, 9.4) respectively. The spatial distributions of infection were 18.2% (107/588) of Assam, 11.7% (23/197) of Manipur, 10.2% (21/207) of Meghalaya, and 8.2% (22/268) of Tripura states. Association study of the disease with demographic features suggested poor living condition (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.83, 5.63), previous history of infection in family member (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.09, 4.82) and unhygienic toilet facility (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.49) as significant risk factors for amoebiasis. Children in age group <15 yr, participants having lower levels of education, and daily laborers exhibited a higher infection rate. Conclusions/Significance: Despite the importance of molecular diagnosis of amoebiasis, molecular epidemiological data based on a large sample size from endemic countries are rarely reported in the literature. Improved and faster method of diagnosis employed here to dissect out the pathogenic from the nonpathogenic species would help the clinicians to prescribe the appropriate anti-amoebic drug. © 2015 Nath et al.


Roy S.,Gurucharan College | Gupta A.,Assam University
Pollution Research | Year: 2011

River Barak and its tributaries are major sources of usable water in the densely populated Barak valley of Assam, India. This paper makes an assessment of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of River Barak and its tributaries during 2002 to 2006 at 12 sites. Habitat scores (based on RBP III) at all the sampling sites mostly ranged between the 'suboptimal' and 'marginal' categories, thereby indicating their neither pristine nor heavily impacted nature. Among the twelve stations of the Barak River system, River Chiri had the highest value of pH, total alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. At the same time, it also had the lowest value of water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and BOD, thereby revealing that this site, located in the upstream area of the Barak Catchment in Cachar district, was the least disturbed. As the river flowed further downstream to enter Silchar, the largest urban center in this area, there was an immediate decline in pH, total alkalinity and DO and a concomitant increase in water temperature, TDS and BOD. BOD (5 days) remained below the acceptable limit in R. Kushiara. Possible correlations were made between the habitat score and water quality parameters. Habitat degradation in River Barak and its tributaries might have occurred due to anthropogenic activities like agriculture, disposal of sewage and other waste, mass bathing and washing of clothes in the river and its catchment. © EM International.


Nath J.,Gurucharan College | Nath J.,Assam University | Hussain G.,Gurucharan College | Singha B.,Gurucharan College | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2015

Intestinal diarrheagenic polyparasitic infections are among the major public health concerns in developing countries. Here we examined stool specimens by microscopy, DNA dot blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the co-infection of four principal protozoans among amoebic dysentery cases from Northeast Indian population. The multiplex PCR confirmed Entamoeba histolytica (8·1%), Entamoeba dispar (4·8%) and mixed infection of both the parasites (3·4%) in 68 of 356 stool specimens that were positive in microscopy and/or HMe probe based DNA dot blot screening. The prevailing parasite that co-exists with E. histolytica was Giardia duodenalis (34·1%), followed by Enterocytozoon bieneusi (22·0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (14·6%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (7·3%, P = 0·017). Symptomatic participants (odds ratio (OR) = 4·07; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·06, 15·68; P = 0·041), monsoon season (OR = 7·47; 95% CI = 1·40, 39·84; P = 0·046) and participants with family history of parasitic infection (OR = 4·50; 95% CI = 1·16, 17·51; P = 0·030) have significant association with overall co-infection rate. According to molecular consensus, comprehensive microscopy yielded 3·4% (12/356) false-negative and 7·6% (27/356) false-positive outcome, suggesting an improved broad-spectrum PCR-based diagnostic is required to scale down the poor sensitivity and specificity as well as implementation of integrated control strategy. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.


Nath J.,Gurucharan College | Nath J.,Assam University | Banyal N.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Gautam D.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

This study developed a fast and high throughput dot-blot technique to evaluate the presence of Entamoeba in stool samples (n = 643) followed by a PCR-based method to validate and differentiate the two species E. histolytica and E. dispar. The prevalence rate of the parasite has been detected in a cross-sectional study carried out in the population of the Eastern and Northern parts of India. Of the various demographic features, prevalence was highest in the monsoon season (P = 0·017), in the <15 years age group (P = 0·015). In HIV-positive individuals, the prevalence rate was significantly high (P = 0·008) in patients with a CD4 cell count <200 as well as in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = 0·011). Our analysis further confirmed that risk factors such as toilet facilities, living conditions, hygienic practices, drinking water source, occupation and level of education are important predictors as they were found to contribute significantly in the prevalence of the parasite. © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Sharma D.,Cachar Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Kannan R.,The Surgical Center | Tapkire R.,The Surgical Center | Nath S.,Gurucharan College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Cancer patients frequently experience malnutrition. Cancer and cancer therapy effects nutritional status through alterations in the metabolic system and reduction in food intake. In the present study, fifty seven cancer patients were selected as subjects from the oncology ward of Cachar Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Silchar, India. Evaluation of nutritional status of cancer patients during treatment was carried out by scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). The findings of PG-SGA showed that 15.8% (9) were well nourished, 31.6% (18) were moderately or suspected of being malnourished and 52.6% (30) were severely malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in lip/oral (33.33%) cancer patients. The study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition (84.2%) was high in cancer patients during treatment.


Goswmai S.,Gurucharan College | Das K.K.,Gauhati University
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2015

Objective To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. Methods Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. Results The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%). Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05). Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. Conclusion The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.


PubMed | Jawaharlal Nehru University, Assam University and Gurucharan College
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

Epidemiological studies carried out using culture or microscopy in most of the amoebiasis endemic developing countries, yielded confusing results since none of these could differentiate the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. The Northeastern part of India is a hot spot of infection since the climatic conditions are most conducive for the infection and so far no systemic study has been carried out in this region.Following a cross-sectional study designed during the period 2011-2014, a total of 1260 fecal samples collected from the Northeast Indian population were subjected to microscopy, fecal culture and a sensitive and specific DNA dot blot screening assay developed in our laboratory targeting the Entamoeba spp. Further species discrimination using PCR assay performed in microscopy, culture and DNA dot blot screening positive samples showed E. histolytica an overall prevalence rate of 11.1%, 8.0% and 13.7% respectively. In addition, infection rates of nonpathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were 11.8% (95% CI = 10.2, 13.8) and 7.8% (95% CI = 6.4, 9.4) respectively. The spatial distributions of infection were 18.2% (107/588) of Assam, 11.7% (23/197) of Manipur, 10.2% (21/207) of Meghalaya, and 8.2% (22/268) of Tripura states. Association study of the disease with demographic features suggested poor living condition (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.83, 5.63), previous history of infection in family member (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.09, 4.82) and unhygienic toilet facility (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.49) as significant risk factors for amoebiasis. Children in age group <15 yr, participants having lower levels of education, and daily laborers exhibited a higher infection rate.Despite the importance of molecular diagnosis of amoebiasis, molecular epidemiological data based on a large sample size from endemic countries are rarely reported in the literature. Improved and faster method of diagnosis employed here to dissect out the pathogenic from the nonpathogenic species would help the clinicians to prescribe the appropriate anti-amoebic drug.


PubMed | Gauhati University and Gurucharan College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Jornal de pediatria | Year: 2015

To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months.Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearsons chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population.The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%). Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mothers anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p<0.05). Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia.The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.


PubMed | Gurucharan College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental biology | Year: 2013

Imperata grassland at Dorgakona, Barak valley, North Eastern India was analyzed for species composition and diversity pattern in relation to traditional management practices. 19 families were in the burnt and unburnt plots of the study site with Poaceae as the most dominant one. 29 species occurred in the burnt plot and 28 in the unburnt plot. Most of the species were common in both the plots. The pattern of frequency diagrams indicated that the vegetation was homogeneous. Imperata cylindrica, a rhizomatous grass was the dominant species based on density (318.75 and 304.18 nos. m(-2)), basal cover (158.22 and 148.34 cm2 m(-2)) and Importance value index (IVI) (132.64 and 138.74) for the burnt and unburnt plots respectively. Borreria pusilla was the co-dominant species constituting Imperata-Borreria assemblage of the studied grassland. It was observed that B. pusilla (162.25 nos. m(-2) and 50.37 nos. m(-2), I. cylindrica (318.75 nos. m(-2) and 304.18 nos. m(-2)) and Setaria glauca (24.70 nos. m(-2) and 16.46 nos. m(-2) were benefited from burning as shown by the values sequentially placed for burnt and unburnt plots. Certain grasses like Chrysopogon aciculatus and Sacciolepis indica were restricted to burnt plot while Oxalis corniculata showed its presence to unburnt plot. Grasses dominated the grassland as revealed by their contribution to the mean percentage cover of 72% in burnt plot and 76% in umburnt plot. The dominance-diversity curves in the study site approaches a log normal series distribution suggesting that the resources are shared by the constituent species. Seasonal pattern in diversity index suggested definite influence of climatic seasonality on species diversity; rainy season was conducive for maximum diversity (1.40 and 1.38 in the burnt and unburnt plots, respectively). Dominance increased with concentration of fewer species (0.0021 in burnt plot and 0.0055 in unbumt plot) in summer and behaves inversely to index of diversity. This study showed that the traditional management practices benefits the farmers as it promote grassland regeneration with I. cylindrica as the dominant grass.

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