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Trexler E.T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Smith-Ryan A.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Stout J.R.,University of Central Florida | Hoffman J.R.,University of Central Florida | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2015

Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of beta-alanine supplementation. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (4-6 g daily) significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer; 2) Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses; 3) The only reported side effect is paraesthesia (tingling), but studies indicate this can be attenuated by using divided lower doses (1.6 g) or using a sustained-release formula; 4) Daily supplementation with 4 to 6 g of beta-alanine for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration; 5) Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance; 6) Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of beta-alanine is high enough (4-6 g daily) and long enough (minimum 4 weeks); 7) More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine. © 2015 Trexler et al.


Robinson S.L.,Guru Performance LTD | Lambeth-Mansell A.,University of Worcester | Gillibrand G.,Ultimate City Fitness | Smith-Ryan A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Bannock L.,Guru Performance LTD
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2015

Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods. Over a 14-week period, the Athlete was provided with a scientifically designed nutrition and conditioning plan that encouraged him to (i) consume a variety of foods; (ii) not neglect any macronutrient groups; (iii) exercise regularly but not excessively and; (iv) incorporate rest days into his conditioning regime. This strategy resulted in a body mass loss of 11.7 kg's, corresponding to a 6.7 kg reduction in fat mass and a 5.0 kg reduction in fat-free mass. Resting metabolic rate decreased from 1993 kcal/d to 1814 kcal/d, whereas resting fat oxidation increased from 0.04 g/min to 0.06 g/min. His capacity to oxidize fat during exercise increased more than two-fold from 0.24 g/min to 0.59 g/min, while there was a near 3-fold increase in the corresponding exercise intensity that elicited the maximal rate of fat oxidation; 21% VO2max to 60% VO2max. Hamstring concentric peak torque decreased (1.7 to 1.5 Nm/kg), whereas hamstring eccentric (2.0 Nm/kg to 2.9 Nm/kg), quadriceps concentric (3.4 Nm/kg to 3.7 Nm/kg) and quadriceps eccentric (4.9 Nm/kg to 5.7 Nm/kg) peak torque all increased. Psychological mood-state (BRUMS scale) was not negatively influenced by the intervention and all values relating to the Athlete's mood-state remained below average over the course of study. This intervention shows that a structured and scientifically supported nutrition strategy can be implemented to improve parameters relevant to bodybuilding competition and importantly the health of competitors, therefore questioning the conventional practices of bodybuilding preparation. © 2015 Robinson et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


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Guru Performance Ltd | Date: 2014-08-11

Handbooks (manuals); Instructional and teaching materials (except apparatus); Printed matter; Printed publications; Reference books; and Textbooks. Arranging of workshops, seminars, teaching programmes, lectures, conferences, and professional workshop and training courses; Provision of educational services relating to health, diet, exercise, and fitness; Education services, namely education services relating to health and nutrition; Sports education services; Physical health education; Dietary education services; Teaching of diet education; Physical fitness education services; Training and education services; Production of course material distributed at professional courses, seminars, and lectures; Provision of educational health and fitness information; Educational examination; Educational assessment services; Instruction courses relating to health; Training courses; Seminars; Providing of training in the field of health care and nutrition; Conducting classes in nutrition; Instruction in nutrition (not medical); Exercise (fitness) training services; Exercise (fitness) advisory services.

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