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Mammen D.,M. S. University of Baroda | Daniel M.,M. S. University of Baroda | Sane R.T.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

Quality control methods are of utmost importance for maintenance of quality of herbal medicines. Literature values are available for a number of medicinal plants. Such values are considered to be standard and at times taken for granted. The present work was carried out to determine if the values of proximate analysis are consistent even with change of season or region of collection. If the values vary, then it is of utmost importance to determine the best time and place of collection for the plant. The various parameters studied were ash analysis, extractive values and moisture content for three plants Aerva lanata, Hedyotis corymbosa and Leptadenia reticulata. Each plant was collected during summer, monsoon and winter to study the effect of change of season on the proximate analysis values. Similarly the analysis was carried out for samples collected from Gujarat, Maharashtra and Kerala, to study the effect of geographical variation in the plants. Interestingly, the values were found to be change with season and region of collection of these plants.

Mammen D.,M. S. University of Baroda | Daniel M.,M. S. University of Baroda | Sane R.T.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2011

Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. is a well-known medicinal herb often confused with a similar looking plant, Glinus oppositifolius (L.) A.DC. Micromorphological, pharmacognostic, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprint differences between these two herbs were identified for the biomarkers aiding in correct identification of the former plant, as well as to detect adulteration. Different parameters were studied for the plant materials in fresh form, powder form and extract form. The study of stomata in fresh plants showed stomata to be paracytic in H. corymbosa and anomocytic in G. oppositifolius. Microscopic studies of the powders of both plants showed raphides in the former plant, while cystoliths and sphaeraphides in G. oppositifolius. Phytochemical analysis of the plants indicated the presence of three flavonols in H. corymbosa and two flavones in the other. Two anthocyanins identified in H. corymbosa were found absent in G. oppositifolius. Phenolic acid content also varied in both plants. The HPTLC fingerprints of both the plants showed enough variation for identification of adulteration.

Patil N.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development | Datar A.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: In the present study, a new, simple and an efficient microwave oven extraction method was developed for maximum yield of colorant from Ixora coccinea flowers. The preliminary stability study of colorant was carried out to provide reliable data for application of the plant. Methods: The comparison of cold extraction and microwave oven extraction method was carried out. The crude anthocyanin content was estimated by using pH differential method. The stability of color extract was evaluated for the period of one month by using UV- Visible spectroscopy. An attempt was made to separate color components of the extract by developing HPTLC method. Results: The yield of microwave oven extraction of colorant is found to be 13.26% under the optimized conditions set at the temperature of 70˚C, 50 minutes time, 0.1% HCl concentration in solvent and 1:60 ratio of sample to solvent. The result indicated that the anthocyanin content is 704.73 mg/100 g to 662.79 mg/100g in fresh material. The study demonstrated that the pinkish red extract of the flowers is stable under low pH values (≤4) and unstable under alkaline conditions. It is also found to be sensitive to high temperature and light. The HPTLC profile of color showed the presence of pink and violet color major components at Rf values 0.17, 0.33, 0.37, 0.56, 0.67 and 0.83. Conclusion: The experimental work on Ixora coccinea provides enough information to tap its potential as a colorant in acidic foods or cosmetics. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.

Barbade K.D.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development | Datar A.G.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Objective: Present extensive study on medicinal plant Embelia basaal (R. & S.) A. DC. was undertaken for evaluation and quantification of broad spectrum antibacterial activity, free radical scavenging potential, phytochemical investigation, development of high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile and in-vivo safety of the plant. Methods: Dried fruits of the plant were powdered and macerated in variety of solvents to obtain four extracts of different polarities. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay. Most potent antibacterial extract of E. basaal was selected for further extensive studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the potent antibacterial extract were determined using broth macrodilution method as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Qualitative phytochemical tests, quantification of total phenolic contents and HPTLC fingerprint analysis were carried out for phytochemical investigation. The in-vivo safety of the plant was determined by conducting acute oral toxicity studies in mice as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines test no. 420. Results: Ethanol extract of E. basaal was found potent bactericidal against selected pathogens and chosen for further extensive studies. The extract exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity (inhibitory concentration 50 value=50 µg/mL). Phytochemical investigation revealed presence of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids in the test extract and it was found safe in-vivo at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight of an animal. Conclusion: E. basaal was found medicinally active in the present study. Its broad spectrum antibacterial activity, significant free radical scavenging potential and in-vivo safety will provide a platform for advance studies in the area. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.

Denni M.,M. S. University of Baroda | Sandhya B.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development | Ramesh S.,Guru Nanak Institute for Research and Development
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., or the chebulic myrobalan, hold an important place in Ayurveda, as an important constituent of Triphala. They are harvested at three different stages of maturity and are thus available in the market as three different varieties. The most mature fruit is referred to as Surwary harda and the intermediately mature fruit is referred to as Rangari harda. The least mature fruit is commonly referred to as Bal harda. In the present work the variation in constituents of these products is followed up. Harda is known for its tannin content, especially gallic and ellagic acid derivatives. Gallic acid was found only in the mature fruits, while ellagic acid was found in both young and intermediate fruits. Two methyl ether derivatives of quercetin i.e. 3'-Methoxy quercetin and 3', 4'-Dimethoxy quercetin, were identified in all the three fruits, whose contents were found to increase with maturity. Melilotic acid has been identified along with vanillic and p-coumaric acids. All the three phenolic acids were found present only in intermediate and mature fruits. Pro-pelargonidin has been isolated from the mature fruit, using paper chromatography and identified using spectral analysis. Quinones were found to be absent in the young fruit.

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