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D'Souza V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Rani A.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Pisal H.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension | Year: 2016

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder, defined as new onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Our earlier study has shown increased maternal oxidative stress at delivery to be associated with poor birth outcome in PE. However, these results were observed when the pathology had progressed and may have been secondary to the effects of the disorder. To understand the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in PE right from early pregnancy, in this prospective study, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in maternal blood at 3 time-points of gestation [16–20 weeks (T1), 26–30 weeks (T2), at delivery (T3)] and in cord blood. Gene expression of SOD and GPx and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme were also analyzed in the placenta. MDA levels were higher at T1 (p < 0.01) and T2 (p < 0.01) in women with PE as compared with control. GPx levels were higher at T3 (p < 0.05) while SOD levels were lower at T2 (p < 0.05), T3 (p < 0.01) and in cord (p < 0.01) in PE. GSH levels at T1 (p < 0.05) and expression of GPx in the placenta were lower in PE as compared with control. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that women who develop PE exhibit increased oxidative stress right from 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. This may alter placental development and lead to fetal programming of adult non-communicable disease in the offspring. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Wadhwani N.S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil V.V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Mehendale S.S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Wagh G.N.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: The present prospective study examines the levels of maternal plasma folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine in normotensive control (NC) women and women with preeclampsia (PE) from early pregnancy till delivery.Methods: The present study includes 126 NC and 62 PE women. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (T1 = 16th-20th weeks, T2 = 26th-30th weeks and T3 = at delivery). Levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were estimated by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay technology.Results: Maternal plasma folate levels were similar between NC and PE women at all the time points across gestation. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher in PE (p < 0.05) as compared with NC at T2. Maternal plasma homocysteine levels were higher in PE as compared with NC at all the time points, i.e. T1, T2 (p < 0.05 for both) and T3 (p < 0.01).Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher homocysteine levels exist in women with PE from early pregnancy and continue till delivery. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


D'souza V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Kilari A.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Pisal H.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Improper development of the placenta due to altered angiogenesis is the main culprit in PE. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an angiogenic factor which is expressed and localized in the placenta. Our earlier cross sectional study has shown altered NGF levels at delivery in women with PE. However, there are no studies on NGF levels in PE early in pregnancy before manifestation of the disease. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of NGF in vascular development during different stages of gestation in PE. A longitudinal study was carried out where pregnant women were enrolled from two major hospitals from Pune, Bharati hospital and Gupte hospital. They were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)] during pregnancy and maternal blood at every time point and cord blood at delivery was collected and processed. This study included normotensive women (n= 88) and women with PE (n= 48). NGF levels were measured from maternal and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System (Promega). The data was analyzed using the SPSS/PC+ package (Version 20.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Maternal NGF levels did not change at all time points while cord NGF levels were higher (p< 0.05) in women with PE. Further, maternal NGF levels were negatively associated with blood pressure while cord NGF levels were positively associated with baby head circumference. Our data suggests that there may possibly be a compensatory role for NGF in the foeto-placental circulation in PE. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


D'Souza V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Pisal H.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Randhir K.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Preeclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy complication of placental origin which leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suggested to promote trophoblast growth and regulate placental and fetal development. This study for the first time examines the levels of maternal plasma BDNF at various time points during gestation, cord plasma and placental BDNF levels and their association with birth outcome in women with PE. Normotensive control (NC) women (n= 89) and women with PE (n= 61) were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)]. Maternal blood at all time points and cord blood was collected. Results indicate that maternal BDNF levels at T1 (p= 0.050) and T3 (p= 0.025) were lower in women with PE than in NC women. Cord BDNF levels at delivery in women with PE were lower (p= 0.032) than those in NC women. Placental BDNF gene expression was also lower (p= 0.0082) in women with PE than in NC women. Our data suggests that BDNF plays an important role in the development of the materno-fetal-placental unit during pregnancy. Alteration in the levels of BDNF during pregnancy may be associated with an abnormal development of the placenta resulting in PE. © 2014. Source


Wadhwani N.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Pisal H.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Joshi A.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | And 4 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2014

Our previous cross-sectional studies have shown altered proportions of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in preeclampsia (PE) at the end of pregnancy when the pathology has already progressed. The present longitudinal study for the first time reports fatty acid proportions from 16th week of gestation till delivery and placental transport in PE. This is a hospital based study where women were recruited in early pregnancy. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points i.e. T1=16-20th week, T2=26-30th week and T3=at delivery. Cord blood and placenta were collected at delivery. This study reports data on 140 normotensive control (NC) and 54 PE women. In PE we report lower proportions of DHA in maternal plasma at T1, cord plasma and placenta ( p<0.05 for all). The mRNA levels of placental 5 desaturase, fatty acid transport proteins -1, -4, were lower ( p<0.05 for all) in PE. There was also a positive association between cord and maternal plasma DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids at T1. This study demonstrates that women with PE have lower fatty acids stores at 16-20th week of gestation and lower placental synthesis and transport. It is likely that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids during the 16-20th week of gestation may help in improving fatty acid status in infants born to mothers with PE. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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