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Suzuki R.,Gunma University | Kaburagi T.,Gunma Industrial Technology Center | Matsubara M.,Gunma University | Tashiro T.,Gunma University | Koyama T.,Gunma University
Experimental Techniques | Year: 2016

A Herbert pendulum wasmodified to a lightweight pendulum with a cylindrical indenter by Habara in order to measure the hardness of viscoelastic materials such as plastics and rubbers. It is difficult to provide enough strain to evaluate the hardness of hard materials using the Herbert pendulum with a cylindrical indenter because the contact stress between the indenter and the specimen is smaller than that of the original Herbert pendulum. In this study, a modified measurement system is developed to accurately measure the swing angle of a lightweight Herbert pendulum with a cylindrical indenter. Two independent laser displacement meters are installed, to provide a noncontact measurement of the swing angle. The modified Herbert pendulum with a cylindrical indenter is evaluated for measuring the hardness of metals. Four types of Herbert hardness are compared with the Vickers hardness. Good correlation is shown between the damping hardness (one type of Herbert hardness) and the Vickers hardness. The damping hardness measured based on the modified Herbert hardness tester can be used as the hardness parameter of the metals. © 2016, The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc.

Peng B.,Gunma University | Kano M.,Gunma Industrial Technology Center | Nakazawa N.,Gunma University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

This paper describes the three dimensional measurement of facial feature points. The nostril part was picked up as a feature point. The human's face was observed by the stereo-camera in real time. The depth position of the nostril was derived by the binocular parallax between the detected positions of the two cameras. Here, a new detection method for a nostril was suggested. First of all, the binalization image obtained from the stereo-camera was changed to the connection ingredient by processing labeling. Next, the system narrowed down the candidate of the nostril as a facial feature point by checking the geometric characteristics such as size, the center of gravity every ingredient. Furthermore, the skin color around the nostril was utilized to enhance the detection system. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Bitou Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Hosoya H.,Gunma Industrial Technology Center | Mashimo K.,Gunma Industrial Technology Center
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

A simple method for reducing the uncertainty of reference standards has been proposed for gauge block comparator calibration. Errors due to the reference value of the length difference for mechanical comparator evaluation can be reduced by using the average of two reference values. Two reference values of length difference are obtained by the appropriate combination of three gauge blocks. Errors caused by reference gauges are canceled and averaged. An error reduction effect was successfully demonstrated using an actual mechanical comparator. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tanaka G.,Kumamoto University | Parker A.R.,Natural History Museum in London | Hasegawa Y.,Gunma Museum of Natural History | Siveter D.J.,University of Leicester | And 12 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Vision, which consists of an optical system, receptors and image-processing capacity, has existed for at least 520 Myr. Except for the optical system, as in the calcified lenses of trilobite and ostracod arthropods, other parts of the visual system are not usually preserved in the fossil record, because the soft tissue of the eye and the brain decay rapidly after death, such as within 64 days and 11 days, respectively. The Upper Carboniferous Hamilton Formation (300 Myr) in Kansas, USA, yields exceptionally well-preserved animal fossils in an estuarine depositional setting. Here we show that the original colour, shape and putative presence of eumelanin have been preserved in the acanthodii fish Acanthodes bridgei. We also report on the tissues of its eye, which provides the first record of mineralized rods and cones in a fossil and indicates that this 300 Myr-old fish likely possessed colour vision. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Akao T.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing | Yashiro I.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Hosoyama A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kitagaki H.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing | And 31 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2011

The term 'sake yeast' is generally used to indicate the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that possess characteristics distinct from others including the laboratory strain S288C and are well suited for sake brewery. Here, we report the draft whole-genome shotgun sequence of a commonly used diploid sake yeast strain, Kyokai no. 7 (K7). The assembled sequence of K7 was nearly identical to that of the S288C, except for several subtelomeric polymorphisms and two large inversions in K7. A survey of heterozygous bases between the homologous chromosomes revealed the presence of mosaic-like uneven distribution of heterozygosity in K7. The distribution patterns appeared to have resulted from repeated losses of heterozygosity in the ancestral lineage of K7. Analysis of genes revealed the presence of both K7-acquired and K7-lost genes, in addition to numerous others with segmentations and terminal discrepancies in comparison with those of S288C. The distribution of Ty element also largely differed in the two strains. Interestingly, two regions in chromosomes I and VII of S288C have apparently been replaced by Ty elements in K7. Sequence comparisons suggest that these gene conversions were caused by cDNA-mediated recombination of Ty elements. The present study advances our understanding of the functional and evolutionary genomics of the sake yeast. © 2011 The Author.

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