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LaCrosse, WI, United States

Valentine R.J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Jones A.,American Board of Surgery | Biester T.W.,American Board of Surgery | Cogbill T.H.,Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess changes in general surgery workloads and practice patterns in the past decade. Background: Nearly 80% of graduating general surgery residents pursue additional training in a surgical subspecialty. This has resulted in a shortage of general surgeons, especially in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to characterize the workloads and practice patterns of general surgeons versus certified surgical subspecialists and to compare these data with those from a previous decade. Methods: The surgical operative logs of 4968 individuals recertifying in surgery 2007 to 2009 were reviewed. Data from 3362 (68%) certified only in Surgery (GS) were compared with 1606 (32%) with additional American Board of Medical Specialties certificates (GS+). Data from GS surgeons were also compared with data from GS surgeons recertifying 1995 to 1997. Independent variables were compared using factorial ANOVA. Results: GS surgeons performed a mean of 533 ± 365 procedures annually. Women GS performed far more breast operations and fewer abdomen, alimentary tract and laparoscopic procedures compared to men GS (P < 0.001). GS surgeons recertifying at 10 years performed more abdominal, alimentary tract and laparoscopic procedures compared to those recertifying at 20 or 30 years (P < 0.001). Rural GS surgeons performed far more endoscopic procedures and fewer abdominal, alimentary tract, and laparoscopic procedures than urban counterparts (P < 0.001). The United States medical school graduates had similar workloads and distribution of operations to international medical graduates. Compared to 1995 to 1997, GS surgeons from 2007 to 2009 performed more procedures, especially endoscopic and laparoscopic. GS+ surgeons performed 15% to 33% of all general surgery procedures. Conclusions: GS practice patterns are heterogeneous; gender, age, and practice setting significantly affect operative caseloads. A substantial portion of general surgery procedures currently are performed by GS+ surgeons, whereas GS surgeons continue to perform considerable numbers of specialty operations. Reduced general surgery operative experience in GS+ residencies may negatively impact access to general surgical care. Similarly, narrowing GS residency operative experience may impair specialty operation access. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sartin J.S.,Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center
Clinical Medicine and Research | Year: 2010

Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. ©2010 Marshfield Clinic.

Eradication of bacterial flora from the foot, especially the nailfolds and toe webspaces, through surgical preparation remains a challenge. All previous studies have involved healthy patients undergoing elective foot and ankle surgery or healthy volunteers. However, the patient with diabetes is considered an immunocompromised host with decreased ability to combat invasive bacterial infections. The use of an efficacious surgical preparation is therefore of paramount importance. The author conducted a prospective study involving patients with diabetes with and without ulceration who underwent the current " best evidence available" surgical preparation (i.e., chlorhexidine gluconate [4%] scrub followed by alcohol impregnated with iodine [1%] solution). Qualitative aerobic cultures before and after completion of this surgical preparation technique were obtained from the hallux nailfold; second, third, and fourth toe webspaces (as one culture); and distal anterior tibia. A total of 120 organisms were cultured before surgical preparation with 64 in the elective group and 56 in the ulcerated group. The most commonly isolated organism was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was identified in 46 pre-preparation cultures (38.3%). This was followed by methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (16.7%) and " other" organisms (10.0%). There was a significant reduction for both numbers of organisms identified and positive cultures for the 3 most commonly isolated organisms after surgical preparation. Based on the results of this study, the surgical preparation used here appears to be an efficacious surgical preparation technique for eradicating aerobic bacterial pathogens from the foot in patients with diabetes both with and without ulceration. The high incidence of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis found in this patient population is a cause for concern, especially when metallic fixation is intended to be implanted. © 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons.

Donnenwerth M.P.,Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation | Roukis T.S.,Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine patient outcomes after arthroscopic debridement and microfracture for osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the talar dome. Methods: Infotrieve-PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar were systematically searched for the following terms: microfracture AND ankle OR talus. In addition, we hand-searched common American and European orthopaedic and podiatric surgical journals for relevant manuscripts. Articles considered for inclusion were published in peer-reviewed journals, used the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot scoring system for outcome measurement, and involved arthroscopic debridement and microfracture for OCL of the talar dome. Results: We identified 29 potentially relevant publications, of which 7 met our inclusion criteria. A total of 295 patients (299 ankles) were included in this study. The weighted mean postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score was 86.8 points, translating to good to excellent outcomes in 80.2% of patients. Conclusions: Many techniques exist for the treatment of OCLs of the talar dome. Good to excellent results can be consistently reached in greater than 80% of patients with arthroscopic debridement and microfracture. However, additional prospective trials should be undertaken to determine differences in outcome between techniques, size and location of the OCL, and other patient quality factors, such as cost and time to return to work. Level of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV studies. © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America.

White D.W.,Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center | Suzanne Beard R.,Purdue University | Suzanne Beard R.,Wake forest University | Barton E.S.,Wake forest University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2012

Nearly all human beings, by the time they reach adolescence, are infected with multiple herpesviruses. At any given time, this family of viruses accounts for 35-40 billion human infections worldwide, making herpesviruses among the most prevalent pathogens known to exist. Compared to most other viruses, herpesviruses are also unique in that infection lasts the life of the host. Remarkably, despite their prevalence and persistence, little is known about how these viruses interact with their hosts, especially during the clinically asymptomatic phase of infection referred to as latency. This review explores data in human and animal systems that reveal the ability of latent herpesviruses to modulate the immune response to self and environmental antigens. From the perspective of the host, there are both potentially detrimental and surprisingly beneficial effects of this lifelong interaction. The realization that latent herpesvirus infection modulates immune responses in asymptomatic hosts forces us to reconsider what constitutes a 'normal' immune system in a healthy individual. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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