Cavdar A.,Gumushane University
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2012
The flexural strength and ductility properties of cementitious composites (mortar) under high temperature may be significantly improved by incorporating different types of fibers. In this study, four different types of fibers are added to cement mortars with the aim to investigate their mechanical contributions to mortars under high temperature, comparatively. Polypropylene (PP), carbon (CF), glass (GF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers are chosen for research. These fibers are added into mortars in five different ratios (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.50% and 2.0%) by volume. The mortars are subjected to the following temperatures: 21°C (normal conditions), 100°C (oven dry), 450°C and 650°C. The mechanical properties investigated are flexural strength, deflection and compressive strength of the cement mortars. In addition, thin sections of mortars are investigated to obtain changes in mortar because of high temperature. It is concluded that all fiber types contribute to the flexural strengths of mortars under high temperature. However, this contribution decreases with an increase in temperature. The samples with PVA show the best flexural performance (75-150%) under high temperature. CF which does not melt under high temperature also gives high flexural strength (11-85%). The compressive strengths of the mortars reduce under high temperature or with fiber addition. The highest increase in flexural strength and the lowest decrease in compressive strength is at 0.5-1.5% for CF if all temperature conditions are taken into consideration. The optimum fiber addition ratios of the samples containing PP and GF are 0.5% by volume. And for PVA, it is between 0.5% and 1.5% by volume. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavdar A.,Gumushane University
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013
Polymeric fibers are cheap and popular materials used in the concrete industry, and they may improve the mechanical properties of cementitious composites under high temperature. In this study, three different types of polymeric fibers - Copolymer Polypropylene/polyethylene (CPP), Homopolymer Polypropylene (HPP), and Aramid (AR) - are added to cement mortars with the aim to investigate their mechanical contributions to mortars under high temperature, comparatively. These fibers are added into mortars in five different ratios (0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% and 1.2%) by volume. The mortars are subjected to following temperatures: 21 °C (normal conditions), 100 °C (oven dry), 450 °C, 650 °C and 850 °C. It is concluded that polymeric fibers used in this study contribute to the flexural strength of mortars under normal dry conditions (100 °C). This effect continues clearly up to 450 °C and polymeric fibers show effects on flexural strength especially at 450 °C. Each fiber shows the best performance different addition ratio when flexural and compressive strength are taken into consideration at the same time under high temperature. The highest increase in flexural strength and the lowest decrease in compressive strength are at 0.3-0.9% fiber addition ratio for HPP, at 0.3-0.6% fiber addition ratio for CPP and at 0.9% fiber addition ratio for AR for every temperature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akpinar S.,Gumushane University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013
In this study, mechanical properties of double-strap joints with aluminum or composite patches of different orientation angles at their overlap area were investigated under tensile loading. For this purpose, AA2024-T3 aluminum was used as adherend, while patches were either AA2024-T3 aluminum or 16-ply laminate of carbon/epoxy composite with five different orientation angles (16, 16, [0/90]8, [45/-45]8, [0/45/-45/90]4). A two-part paste adhesive (DP 460) was used to bond adherend and patches. Six different types of joint samples were subjected to tensile loading. The effect of patch material on failure load and stress distribution was examined experimentally and numerically. As a result, it was concluded that the data obtained from 3-D finite element analysis were coherent with experimental results and additional to that fiber orientation angles of the patches markedly affected the failure load of joints, failure mode and stress distributions appeared in adhesive and composite. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Akpinar A.,Gumushane University
Energy | Year: 2013
This study aims to determine and evaluate wind energy potentiality along coastal locations at the North Eastern of Turkey. For this purpose, the present study has statistically analysed wind power potentials and wind characteristics from six meteorological stations (Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, and Hopa) along the North Eastern (NE) geo-political coastal region of Turkey using the hourly or 3-hourly wind speed data measured at 10 m height during 9 years. The diurnal, monthly, and seasonal mean wind speed and wind power density at all the stations are assessed to have remarkable variations. The annual and seasonal frequency distributions and dominant wind directions of the all locations are determined. It is observed that the monthly mean wind speed in this region ranges from 1.53 m/s to 4.06 m/s. The maximum annual mean wind power density was found to be 59.96 W/m2 at Sinop while the maximum annual mean wind energy density was obtained to be 525.25 kWh/m2/year at the same station. It is further shown that Sinop, Hopa, and Trabzon have the higher wind power potential than other locations and their potential are close to each other. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Akpinar A.,Gumushane University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013
In this article, an attempt is made to better understand the contribution of hydropower in meeting electric energy needs of Turkey. Thus, a comparison between Turkey and other countries, which have some similarities with Turkey or which are more developed nations compared to Turkey, for evaluating from different aspects the contribution of hydropower in meeting electric energy needs is performed. The producers of electricity and hydroelectricity in the world, and the electric sectors of all the selected countries are firstly examined. Thereafter, Turkey's water resources and its potential, hydropower potential, and current status of hydropower in Turkey are investigated in detail. A detailed discussion regarding economic and energy indicators, hydroelectricity versus thermal electricity, the contributions of hydroelectricity to the total and renewable electricity generation, and the usage status of hydro potential of each selected nation is also made. Finally, it is found that hydropower is the second largest contributor in meeting Turkey's electric energy needs after thermal, mainly natural gas. It is also estimated that the contribution of hydropower will continue because a vast amount of its economically feasible hydro potential (about 64%) is undeveloped. Besides, it is determined that the contribution of hydropower in the total electricity generation in Turkey is greater than that of China and India, but it is lower than that of Norway, Brazil, and Canada. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.