Gulu, Uganda
Gulu, Uganda

Gulu University , is a university in Uganda. It is one of the eight public universities and degree-awarding institutions in the country. The list includes the following: Makerere University - Founded in 1924 Uganda Management Institute - Founded in 1968 Mbarara University - Founded in 1989 Gulu University - Founded in 2002 Kyambogo University - Founded in 2003 Busitema University - Founded in 2007 Kigumba Petroleum Institute - Founded in 2009 Muni University - Founded in 2012↑ ↑ Wikipedia.

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Obong Y.,Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Omony T.,Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Rachkara P.,Gulu University | Gibson R.W.,University of Greenwich
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2017

It is shown for the first time how participatory variety demonstration (PVD) trials can establish modern varieties in informal seed systems in a developing country by targeting nodal multipliers occupying hub locations. A series of relatively few, small (each 36 m2) PVD trials was conducted over a period of 3 years in sweetpotato multipliers’ fields at three locations in Uganda; multipliers and farmers were encouraged to visit during crop growth and on field days; yields at final harvest and other traits considered important to multipliers and farmers were recorded. In the following dry season, the areas of the introduced varieties established in the lowland crops used by multipliers to conserve planting material were recorded. The two most popular varieties had a recorded area of about 1 ha each and were calculated to have increased sixfold annually from the trials; the next two occupied 0.5 ha each, confirming that the method is effective, cheap, and efficient. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.

Amone-P'Olak K.,University of Botswana | Ovuga E.,Gulu University
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2017

Exposure to war is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Yet the effects of different types of war events on various psychosocial outcomes such as conduct problems remain unknown. This study aims to assess whether various war events differ in predicting conduct problems. Using data from an on-going longitudinal research project, the WAYS study, the current article examined the relationship between specific war events and conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Uganda (N=539, baseline age=22.39; SD=2.03, range 18–25). Regression analyses were conducted to relate each type of war experience to conduct problems. War categories of “witnessing violence”, “deaths”, “threat to loved ones” and “sexual abuse” were associated with reporting conduct problems. Multivariable models yielded independent effects of ‘‘witnessing violence’’ (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) and ‘‘Sexual abuse’’ (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) on conduct problems while “duration in captivity” independently and negatively predicted conduct problems (β=−0.14, 95% CI: −0.23, −0.06). Types of war events vary in predicting conduct problems and should be considered when designing interventions to alleviate negative consequences of exposure to war. Moreover, longer duration in captivity appear to protect war-affected youth from conduct problems. © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

PubMed | Gulu University, Sudan University of Science and Technology and Makerere University
Type: | Journal: BMC medical education | Year: 2016

It has been realised that there is need to have medical training closer to communities where the majority of the population lives in order to orient the trainees attitudes towards future practice in such communities. Although community based education (CBE) has increasingly been integrated into health professions curricula since the 1990s, the contribution students make to service delivery during CBE remains largely undocumented. In this study, we examined undergraduate health professions students contribution to primary health care during their CBE placements.This was a qualitative study involving the Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans consortium (MESAU). Overall, we conducted 36 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs): one each with youth, men and women at each of 12 CBE sites. Additionally, we interviewed 64 community key-informants. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti Ver7.Two themes emerged: students contribution at health facility level and students contribution at community level. Under theme one, we established that students were not only learning; they also contributed to delivery of health services at the facilities. Their contribution was highly appreciated especially by community members. Students were described as caring and compassionate, available on time and anytime, and as participating in patient care. They were willing to share their knowledge and skills, and stimulated discussion on work ethics. Under the second theme, students were reported to have participated in water, sanitation, and hygiene education in the community. Students contributed to maintenance of safe water sources, educated communities on drinking safe water and on good sanitation practices (hand washing and proper waste disposal). Hygiene promotion was done at household level (food hygiene, hand washing, cleanliness) and to the public. Public health education was extended to institutions. School pupils were sensitised on various health-related issues including sexuality and sexual health.Health professions students at the MESAU institutions contribute meaningfully to primary health care delivery. We recommend CBE to all health training programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

PubMed | Tokyo Women's Medical University, Juntendo University, St Marys Hospital Lacor, Gulu University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2017

Individual drug treatment may select resistant parasites in the human body, a process termed in vivo selection. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) genes have been reportedly selected after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding in vivo selection of P. falciparum Kelch propeller domain (pfkelch13) polymorphisms, responsible for artemisinin-resistance in Asia, and six putative background mutations for artemisinin resistance; D193Y in ferredoxin, T484I in multiple resistance protein 2, V127M in apicoplast ribosomal protein S10, I356T in pfcrt, V1157L in protein phosphatase and C1484F in phosphoinositide-binding protein.Artemether-lumefantrine efficacy study with a follow-up period of 28days was conducted in northern Uganda in 2014. The above-mentioned genotypes were comparatively analysed before drug administration and on days; 3, 7, and 28days after treatment.In 61 individuals with successful follow-up, artemether-lumefantrine treatment regimen was very effective with PCR adjusted efficacy of 95.2%. Among 146 isolates obtained before treatment, wild-type alleles were observed in 98.6% of isolates in pfkelch13 and in all isolates in the six putative background genes except I356T in pfcrt, which had 2.4% of isolates as mixed infections. In vivo selection study revealed that all isolates detected in the follow-up period harboured wild type alleles in pfkelch13 and the six background genes.Mutations in pfkelch13 and the six background genes may not play an important role in the in vivo selection after artemether-lumefantrine treatment in Uganda. Different mechanisms might rather be associated with the existence of parasites after treatment.

PubMed | Gulu University and Hoima Regional Hospital
Type: | Journal: BMC pregnancy and childbirth | Year: 2016

Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively.We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant.The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p < 0.001. In Gulu, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)= 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR= 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58).The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia. Greater efforts are required to encourage early antenatal attendance from women in these at risk groups. This would allow iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, which would potentially reduce the prevalence of anaemia.

PubMed | Gulu University and Makerere University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International neuropsychiatric disease journal | Year: 2016

1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda.This was a cross-sectional study.Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012.Four (4) and eight (8) secondary schools located in the rural and urban areas of Gulu and Kampala districts respectively were randomly selected to participate in the survey. A total of 3,200 students aged 12 to 24 years were recruited by proportionate multistage sampling. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about nature and frequency of alcohol and substance use. A pre-tested self-administered survey questionnaire with scales to measure components of psychosocial competence (PSC) was administered. Data was entered in Epidata, and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Psychosocial competence was classified as high or low depending on the responses in the sub-scales of decision making, self efficacy, empathy, emotional awareness, coping with stress and emotions, and accurate self-assessment and self-confidence.A total of 2,902 questionnaires comprising of 2,502, (86.2%) from Kampala district and 400 (13.8%)) from Gulu district were analyzed. Male to female ratio was 1:1 with an age range of 12 to 24 years and a mean of 16.5. About 70.1% had ever used alcohol and substances. Only 39.1% used substances regularly. The commonest substance used was alcohol (23.3%), followed by More than two-thirds (70.1%) of young people in this study had ever used substances of abuse only once and slightly over a third had used it regularly. From the perspectives of service provision, mental health promotion and prevention of illicit substance use, school mental health programmes that target both non-users and users are recommended.

PubMed | Gulu University and Makerere University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC health services research | Year: 2017

Poor retention in HIV care of mother-baby pairs remains a public health challenge in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) of HIV. We determined the rate of non-retention and time to non-retention of mother-baby pairs and associated factors in Gulu district, Northern Uganda.Mother-baby pairs enrolled into the eMTCT programme at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital (GRRH) and Lacor Hospital (LH) were retrospectively followed for 18months. The primary outcomes were the rate of non-retention and time to non-retention of mother-baby pairs in HIV care. Data were abstracted from the antiretroviral treatment and early infant diagnosis (EID) registers, and mother/baby appointment books at the health facilities. Additional data on possible reasons for non-retention were obtained from cross-sectional interviews of mothers. Time to non-retention was calculated as the duration between enrolment of mother-baby pair into care and the date when the mother and/or baby missed a scheduled visit and did not return within 30days. Factors associated with time to non-retention were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The measures of association were expressed as hazards ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Alpha was set at 0.05. The adjusted analysis includes variables with p<0.2 in the bivariable analysis or considered potential confounders. The Analysis used Stata version 12.A total of 410 mother-baby pairs were enrolled in this study. Overall, non-retention by 18month was 30.5%; higher at GRRH (34.7%) than LH (25.8%), p=0.049. Non-retention was higher among pairs where the infant had no EID, adjusted (adj) HR=5.81; 95% CI (2.55, 13.24), non-disclosure of mothers HIV status, adj.HR=1.86; 95% CI (1.22, 2.85), and lack of privacy during counselling session, adj.HR=1.86; 95% CI (1.26, 2.85). Non-retention was about 60% lower [adj.HR=0.43; 95% CI (0.20, 0.92)] among pairs where the mothers understood and appreciated the importance of adhering to all clinic appointments together with the baby.Nearly a third of mother-baby pairs are not retained in HIV care. Lack of EID services, poor quality service, non-disclosure of mothers HIV status, and understanding the importance of adhering to all appointments together with the baby, were associated with time to non-retention.

Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is a tsetse species of high economic importance in Uganda where it is responsible for transmitting animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and both the chronic and acute forms of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We used genotype data from 17 microsatellites and a mitochondrial DNA marker to assess temporal changes in gene frequency for samples collected between the periods ranging from 2008 to 2014 in nine localities spanning regions known to harbor the two forms of HAT in northern Uganda.Our findings suggest that the majority of the studied populations in both HAT foci are genetically stable across the time span sampled. Pairwise estimates of differentiation using standardized FST and Josts DEST between time points sampled for each site were generally low and ranged between 0.0019 and 0.1312 for both sets of indices. We observed the highest values of FST and DEST between time points sampled from Kitgum (KT), Karuma (KR), Moyo (MY) and Pader (PD), and the possible reasons for this are discussed. Effective population size (Ne) estimates using Waples temporal method ranged from 103 (95% CI: 73-138) in Kitgum to 962 (95% CI: 669-1309) in Oculoi (OC). Additionally, evidence of a bottleneck event was detected in only one population at one time point sampled; Aminakwach (AM-27) from December 2014 (P<0.03889).Findings suggest general temporal stability of tsetse vectors in foci of both forms of HAT in northern Uganda. Genetic stability and the moderate effective population sizes imply that a re-emergence of vectors from local residual populations missed by control efforts is an important risk. This underscores the need for more sensitive sampling and monitoring to detect residual populations following control activities.

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