Gulf of Maine Research Institute

Portland, ME, United States

Gulf of Maine Research Institute

Portland, ME, United States

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News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.csmonitor.com

High tide floods a street in Portland, Maine, on Nov. 18, 2016, when the closest full moon since 1948 caused unusually high tides in the low-elevation city. Last week, policy advisors to President-elect Donald Trump announced that the administration would curb NASA’s role in climate research. As it happens, many of Maine’s scientists aren’t happy about that. “We see NASA in an exploration role, in deep space research,” Bob Walker, space policy adviser for the Trump campaign, told the Guardian last week. “Earth-centric science is better placed at other agencies where it is their prime mission.” But that’s not necessarily true. Earth monitoring would likely be delegated to agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which have less experience in space-based research and tighter budgets. And that presents a problem for the Pine Tree State, which is a national nerve center for earth science and climate research. Many Maine institutions – the University of Maine, the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences – rely heavily on NASA’s satellite data. “The key measurements we use to discern change in organisms in the oceans – sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean color – they all pretty much exclusively fall under NASA,” Barney Balch, a biological oceanographer with the Bigelow Laboratory, told the Portland Press Herald. “Other countries use NASA’s expertise in these areas because they are so good at it.” Without NASA’s work, Maine scientists say, it could be difficult to track environmental changes in the region and beyond, as the state has become something of a hub for climate research. Large-scale research initiatives, from marine algae monitoring to analysis of melting sea ice, might struggle to secure funding without sound data sets. “We’re talking people losing jobs and grad students who can’t show up because there isn’t funding to take them on,” Andrew Thomas, a professor of oceanography at the University of Maine, told the Portland Press Herald. “There are millions of dollars that go into the local economy that won’t happen.” Meanwhile, Maine is among the states most at-risk from anthropogenic climate change. With countless tiny inlets and coves, Maine has as much coastline as the rest of the eastern seaboard. Rising sea levels present clear hazards for coastal towns, and warming waters could kill or displace the near-shore ecosystems whose fish and crustaceans power much of Maine's economy. Last month, the Arctic Council convened in Portland to discuss climatological changes in the region. Some of Maine’s coastal industries actually stood to benefit from recent ice melt, which has opened up new marine shipping routes north of the state, but that perk may soon wear thin. Like Mr. Trump, then-President George W. Bush also refocused NASA’s role in earth sciences – at one point, appointees eliminated the phrase, “To understand and protect our home planet” from the agency’s mission statement. But at that time, climate change hadn’t yet been politicized to the degree it is now. And space-based Earth monitoring was a nonpartisan cornerstone in the national strategy. Under Bush, NASA’s 2006 Strategic Plan included three presidential initiatives: the Climate Change Research Initiative, Global Earth Observation, and the Oceans Action Plan.


News Article | September 8, 2016
Site: news.yahoo.com

In this Sept. 2, 2016 photo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution engineers Sean Whelan, left, and Patrick Deane release a Slocum glider into the waters south of Martha's Vineyard, Mass. to monitor anticipated changes in the ocean during the passage of tropical storm Hermine. The underwater drones, or gliders as they are known, collect data that scientists say will help them better understand what sustains and strengthens hurricanes and tropical storms. (Ken Kostel/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution via AP) BOSTON (AP) -- As Hermine worked its way up the East Coast, scientists deployed several underwater drones they say will help them better understand what sustains and strengthens hurricanes and tropical storms — and ultimately better protect life and property. The ocean gliders, as they are called, resemble yellow-winged torpedoes. They were released into the ocean roughly 100 miles offshore at the continental shelf, where at depths of 100 to 300 feet they measured water temperatures, salinity and density before, during and even after the storm. Traditional research aircraft that are flown into the eye of a hurricane to take measurements can't get a read on any of that. "One reason hurricanes are so hard to forecast is that intensity depends on conditions ahead of and below the storm," said Glen Gawarkiewicz, an oceanographer at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The robotic gliders, which are remotely controlled from the shore, can delve into the heart of the storm where it's too dangerous or impractical to send people, and then feed real-time information via satellite to scientists safe on land. The gliders have been in use for several years now, but this is the third year of the coordinated program funded by the NOAA office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Gawarkiewicz said the latest deployments will give a "look at the continental shelf system in a more holistic manner." Woods Hole works on the federally funded program in conjunction with the University of Maine, the University of Maryland, Rutgers University and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. The most important thing the gliders collect is water temperature, an important tool in predicting storm intensity, Gawarkiewicz said. If the storm churns up colder water from the deep ocean, it will decrease in intensity. The data will help forecasters better predict future storms, and perhaps better warn coastal residents when a monster hurricane is about to hit. Scientists hit the jackpot with Hermine. Although it was a relatively weak hurricane and had been downgraded to a tropical storm by the time it reached waters off the Northeast, it moved slowly and lingered in the Atlantic off the New York/New England coast for a few days, giving scientists a wider window in which to gather data. The gliders are still out there, collecting post-storm data that will give scientists a picture of what happens weeks after a hurricane or tropical storm passes through, which can affect future weather. It may take months to fully analyze the Hermine data, but there have already been some surprises, Gawarkiewicz said. For example, the storm drifted farther west than originally predicted, and the data collected may help explain why.


News Article | September 8, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

As Hermine worked its way up the East Coast, scientists deployed several underwater drones they say will help them better understand what sustains and strengthens hurricanes and tropical storms—and ultimately better protect life and property. The ocean gliders, as they are called, resemble yellow-winged torpedoes. They were released into the ocean roughly 100 miles offshore at the continental shelf, where at depths of 100 to 300 feet they measured water temperatures, salinity and density before, during and even after the storm. Traditional research aircraft that are flown into the eye of a hurricane to take measurements can't get a read on any of that. "One reason hurricanes are so hard to forecast is that intensity depends on conditions ahead of and below the storm," said Glen Gawarkiewicz, an oceanographer at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The robotic gliders, which are remotely controlled from the shore, can delve into the heart of the storm where it's too dangerous or impractical to send people, and then feed real-time information via satellite to scientists safe on land. The gliders have been in use for several years now, but this is the third year of the coordinated program funded by the NOAA office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Gawarkiewicz said the latest deployments will give a "look at the continental shelf system in a more holistic manner." Woods Hole works on the federally funded program in conjunction with the University of Maine, the University of Maryland, Rutgers University and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. The most important thing the gliders collect is water temperature, an important tool in predicting storm intensity, Gawarkiewicz said. If the storm churns up colder water from the deep ocean, it will decrease in intensity. The data will help forecasters better predict future storms, and perhaps better warn coastal residents when a monster hurricane is about to hit. Scientists hit the jackpot with Hermine. Although it was a relatively weak hurricane and had been downgraded to a tropical storm by the time it reached waters off the Northeast, it moved slowly and lingered in the Atlantic off the New York/New England coast for a few days, giving scientists a wider window in which to gather data. The gliders are still out there, collecting post-storm data that will give scientists a picture of what happens weeks after a hurricane or tropical storm passes through, which can affect future weather. It may take months to fully analyze the Hermine data, but there have already been some surprises, Gawarkiewicz said. For example, the storm drifted farther west than originally predicted, and the data collected may help explain why.


This image shows cod fishing in the Gulf of Maine. Credit: Gulf of Maine Research Institute For centuries, cod were the backbone of New England's fisheries and a key species in the Gulf of Maine ecosystem. Today, cod stocks are on the verge of collapse, hovering at 3-4% of sustainable levels. Even cuts to the fishery have failed to slow this rapid decline, surprising both fishermen and fisheries managers. For the first time, a new report in Science explains why. It shows that the cod collapse is in large part due to rapid warming of the ocean in the Gulf of Maine - 99 percent faster than anywhere else on the planet. The rapid warming is linked to changes in the position of the Gulf Stream and to climate oscillations in the Atlantic and the Pacific. These factors add to the steady pace of warming caused by global climate change. In the face of already depleted cod stocks, fisheries managers in 2010 had placed a series of restrictions on harvesting this key Gulf of Maine species, but even strict quota limits on fishermen failed to help cod rebound. "Managers kept reducing quotas, but the cod population kept declining," said Andrew Pershing, Chief Scientific Officer of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) and lead author of the study. "It turns out that warming waters were making the Gulf of Maine less hospitable for cod, and the management response was too slow to keep up with the changes." Pershing and colleagues from GMRI, the University of Maine, Stony Brook University, the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, and NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder, found that increasing water temperatures reduce the number of new cod produced by spawning females. Their study also suggests that warming waters led to fewer young fish surviving to adulthood. The models used by managers over the last decade to set the quotas for cod did not account for the impact of rising temperatures, leading to quotas that were too high. Fishermen stayed within their quotas, but still took more fish than the population could sustain. "This creates a frustrating situation that contributes to mistrust between fishermen, scientists, and managers," says Pershing. "The first step toward adapting fisheries to a changing climate is recognizing that warming impacts fish populations." According to the report, recovery of Gulf of Maine cod depends on sound fishery management and on future temperatures. Cod are a coldwater species, and the Gulf of Maine is at the edge of their geographic range. As the ocean warms, the capacity of the Gulf of Maine to support cod will decline, leading to a smaller population and a smaller fishery. The study shows the risk of not including temperature in fisheries models, especially for stocks like Gulf of Maine cod that are at the edge of their range. The warmer our climate gets, the less fisheries managers can rely on historical data. Explore further: Changes in forage fish abundance alter Atlantic cod distribution, affect fishery success More information: "Slow Adaptation in the Face of Rapid Warming Leads to the Collapse of Atlantic Cod in the Gulf of Maine," by A.J. Pershing et al. www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aac9819


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: grist.org

This story was originally published by Mother Jones and is reproduced here as part of the Climate Desk collaboration. The climate didn’t get much attention in this year’s debates, but Tuesday’s election will still have major consequences for the fight against global warming. Donald Trump thinks climate change is a hoax; he’s pledged to withdraw from the historic Paris climate accord and to repeal President Barack Obama’s Clean Power Plan, which is intended to cut greenhouse gas emissions from coal plants. Hillary Clinton has said she will continue Obama’s climate legacy and has called for installing half a billion solar panels by the end of her first term. The debate isn’t restricted to the top of the ticket; there are a number of state races that will play a key role in determining U.S. climate policy, along with a handful of ballot initiatives covering everything from rooftop solar to a proposed carbon tax. The situation in each state is unique. Some races — New Hampshire’s Senate contest, for instance — feature two candidates who want to act on climate change. Others, such as West Virginia’s gubernatorial election, feature two candidates who are champions of the coal industry. The impacts of climate change also vary from state to state: Alaska faces wildfires and melting permafrost; Florida is confronting rising seas; Iowa could be hit with falling corn yields. And of course, the voters in each state are different, too. Coloradans overwhelmingly acknowledge that humans are warming the planet. Their neighbors in Utah: not so much. Below, we’ve listed every state with a competitive presidential, Senate, or gubernatorial race — as well as ones that are voting on climate-related initiatives. And we’ve included a few key facts: namely, where the candidates stand on climate, the specific consequences of warming in each state, and the percentage of each state’s residents who are climate science deniers (according to research from the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication). One final note: For the sake of consistency, we included every Senate and gubernatorial race that the Cook Political Report rates as “toss up,” “lean,” or “likely.” Many of these elections will probably be close, but a few (see: Alaska’s Senate race) almost certainly won’t be. Impacts of climate change: “Alaska has warmed twice as fast as the rest of the nation, bringing widespread impacts. Sea ice is rapidly receding and glaciers are shrinking. Thawing permafrost is leading to more wildfire and affecting infrastructure and wildlife habitat. Rising ocean temperatures and acidification will alter valuable marine fisheries.” [National Climate Assessment, 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 47 percent Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R): “I do believe that our climate is changing. I don’t agree that all the changes are necessarily due solely to human activity.” [Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee session, 8 Jan 2015] Ray Metcalfe (D): “Every [Alaskan] has witnessed climate change over the past 50 years. Our winters are warmer, our summers are longer, and our Arctic Village shores, once protected by sea ice, are eroding. Bold clean energy action is needed to stave off a climate hostile to human life. Unfortunately, Congress is protecting the profits of those opposed to protecting the planet.” [Metcalfe Facebook post, 2 Aug 2016] Impacts of climate change: “Annual precipitation has decreased in Arizona during the last century, and it may continue to decrease. So soils are likely to be drier, and periods without rain are likely to become longer, making droughts more severe … Increasing droughts and higher temperatures are likely to affect Arizona’s top agricultural products: cattle, dairy, and vegetables.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Sen. John McCain (R): “I think we need to address greenhouse gas emissions. But I try to get involved in issues where I see a legislative result … So I just leave the issue alone because I don’t see a way through it, and there are certain fundamentals, for example nuke power, that people on the left will never agree with me on. So why should I waste my time when I know the people on the left are going to reject nuclear power?” [Time, 2 Mar 2014] Rep. Ann Kirkpatrick (D): “The EPA’s [Clean Power Plan] is another example of Washington’s lack of understanding when it comes to rural and Western energy issues. I oppose this new rule because it hurts my district, which has four coal-fired plants that power Arizona’s big cities, small towns, businesses, and residences. These plants also provide good-paying jobs in our tribal and rural regions. The Navajo Generating Station in Page, for example, employs hundreds of people, mostly Native Americans, and provides nearly all of the power for the Central Arizona Project. That means our entire state has a big stake in the energy production and economic stability of these plants. We need to find a balance between protecting our local economies while pursuing the longer-term goal of producing clean, affordable, and reliable power. I will not support efforts that kill jobs in my district and lack provisions for responsibly transitioning us toward a clean-energy economy.” [Kirkpatrick press release, 2 June 2014] Impacts of climate change: “Rising temperatures have and will continue to impact the state’s resources in a variety of ways, including more rapid snowmelt, longer and more severe droughts, and longer growing seasons … Moreover, Colorado experiences numerous climate-related disasters, such as [tornadoes], hailstorms, and wildfires, that will continue to occur and may be exacerbated by climate change.” [University of Colorado and Colorado State University, January 2015] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 41 percent Sen. Michael Bennet (D): “Colorado’s economy is already being threatened by unchecked climate change … [The Clean Power Plan] is an important step toward curbing carbon pollution and addressing climate change.” [Bennet press release, 3 Aug 2015] Impacts of climate change: “There is an imminent threat of increased inland flooding during heavy rain events in low-lying coastal areas such as southeast Florida, where just inches of sea-level rise will impair the capacity of stormwater drainage systems to empty into the ocean. Drainage problems are already being experienced in many locations during seasonal high tides, heavy rains, and storm surge events.” [National Climate Assessment, 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 42 percent Sen. Marco Rubio (R): “I do not believe that human activity is causing these dramatic changes to our climate the way these scientists are portraying it … And I do not believe that the laws that they propose we pass will do anything about it — except, they will destroy our economy.” [ABC News, 13 May 2014] Rep. Patrick Murphy (D): “Everywhere I go in Florida, I see the effects of [climate change]. Sen. Rubio denies science.” [WFTV debate via Media Matters, 17 Oct 2016] Rooftop Solar (Amendment 1): This is a confusing initiative that could actually undermine rooftop solar in the Sunshine State. As we reported in March, “Amendment 1 was created by an organization with a grassroots-sounding name: Consumers for Smart Solar. In reality, though, the organization is financed by the state’s major electric utility companies as well as by conservative groups with ties to the Koch brothers … The amendment says state and local governments have the authority ‘to ensure that consumers who do not choose to install solar are not required to subsidize the costs of backup power and electric grid access to those who do.'” That’s widely seen as an attack on net metering, the policy requiring utilities to pay consumers for the extra power produced by their solar panels. Impacts of climate change: “Sea level is rising more rapidly in Georgia than along most coasts because the land is sinking. If the oceans and atmosphere continue to warm, sea level is likely to rise one to four feet in the next century along the coast of Georgia. Rising sea level submerges wetlands and dry land, erodes beaches, and exacerbates coastal flooding … [H]urricane wind speeds and rainfall rates are likely to increase as the climate continues to warm. Whether or not storms become more intense, coastal homes and infrastructure will flood more often as sea level rises, because storm surges will become higher as well.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 45 percent Sen. Johnny Isakson (R): “I’ve done everything I can as a United States Senator to educate myself on the carbon issue and the climate change issue. Seven years ago, I went with Sen. Boxer from California to Disko Bay in Greenland with Dr. [Richard] Alley who’s the leading glaciologist in the world to study for a while what he says about the possibility of carbon being the cause of climate change. And there are mixed reviews on that; there’s mixed scientific evidence on that.” [Atlanta Journal Constitution, 18 Mar 2015] Jim Barksdale (D): “Climate change is a reality and if left unchecked, rising ocean tides will harm Georgia’s Atlantic coast and threaten our state’s robust tourism and shipping industries.” [Barksdale campaign website, accessed 28 Oct 2016] Allen Buckley (L): “Change the gas tax to be an energy tax with the following general concept — the cleaner a fuel is, the less tax it bears and the dirtier a fuel is, the more tax it bears. For example, the current federal excise tax is 18.4 cents per gallon of gasoline. If, in the future, one-third of our vehicles run on gasoline, one-third run on batteries, and one-third run on hydrogen, and the respective ‘well to wheels’ carbon dioxide output is 6, 3, and 1, then the 18.4 cent excise tax should be allocated so that gasoline bears 33.1 cents per gallon, battery-powered cars pay 16.6 cents per gallon in gasoline-equivalent terms, and hydrogen vehicles pay 5.5 cents per gallon in gasoline-equivalent terms … Concerning global warming, while I believe it is happening, the degree to which it is man-made is very hard to gauge.” [Buckley campaign website, accessed 28 Oct 2016] Impacts of climate change: “Changing climate is likely to increase the frequency of floods in Illinois. Over the last half century, average annual precipitation in most of the Midwest has increased by 5 to 10 percent. But rainfall during the four wettest days of the year has increased about 35 percent, and the amount of water flowing in most streams during the worst flood of the year has increased by more than 20 percent. During the next century, spring rainfall and average precipitation are likely to increase, and severe rainstorms are likely to intensify. Each of these factors will tend to further increase the risk of flooding … In Lake Michigan, changing climate is likely to harm water quality. Warmer water tends to cause more algal blooms, which can be unsightly, harm fish, and degrade water quality.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 39 percent Sen. Mark Kirk (R): “I have voted that climate change is happening and it’s also caused by man … The best thing that we can do on climate change is make sure that China converts to a more nuclear future to limit those — that one coal-burning plant coming on a week that we expect — that would really help the planet … We need to work cooperatively with developing countries to make sure they emit less.” [WICS debate via Media Matters, 27 Oct 2016] Rep. Tammy Duckworth (D): “Of course climate change is real. And I support an all-of-the-above approach attacking climate change — everything from moving our country towards being carbon-neutral, moving our country towards clean energy … My opponent has not been consistent … Depending on whether or not he’s up for election … he’s either voted for the Clean Power Plan or against the Clean Power Plan. He’s switched back and forth.” [WICS debate via Media Matters, 27 Oct 2016] Impacts of climate change: “Changing the climate is likely to increase the frequency of floods in Indiana … During the next century, spring rainfall and average precipitation are likely to increase, and severe rainstorms are likely to intensify. Each of these factors will tend to further increase the risk of flooding … Although springtime in Indiana is likely to be wetter, summer droughts are likely to be more severe … Longer frost-free growing seasons and higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would increase yields for some crops during an average year. But increasingly hot summers are likely to reduce yields of corn and possibly soybeans.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 46 percent Former Sen. Evan Bayh (D): “Evan Bayh supports Indiana’s coal industry, including opposing the EPA’s coal rules. Pointing out that the coal industry contributed $2 billion to Indiana’s economy, Evan argued that the EPA’s rules would put ‘tens of thousands’ of Hoosier jobs at risk. In the Senate, Evan not only voted twice against cap-and-trade legislation, he signed a letter stating that he would not support any climate change bill that did not protect Indiana jobs.” [Bayh campaign website, accessed 28 Oct 2016] Rep. Todd Young (R): “My mind remains open about the various scientific questions and so forth. We’re often told that there is a consensus among scientists, and I’ve come to discover — as the number of scientists I’ve talked to and the number of things I read — that’s not necessarily the case. But I think we need to prepare for the worst, and so I support energy efficiency measures. I think natural gas has been a big part of the solution if in fact we need to reduce man-generated carbon dioxide emissions. And I think any public policy that doesn’t account for the fact that most CO2 emissions don’t come from the United States, but they come from other countries, is a flawed policy. So let’s not unilaterally tax our power, our people, to solve a global problem.” [WLKY, 8 Oct 2014] John Gregg, former Indiana Speaker of the House and former coal lobbyist (D): “Like my family, I’ve worked in the coal industry. And I’ve opposed federal rules impacting coal jobs.” [Gregg campaign ad, 11 Aug 2016] Lt. Gov Eric Holcomb (R): “[Holcomb will] stand strong against unreasonable Federal EPA rules, like the so-called Clean Power Plan, that continue to lead to higher prices for Hoosiers.” [Holcomb campaign website, accessed 28 Oct 2016] Impacts of climate change: “[Iowa] will face the highest likely losses of any Midwest state from climate-related commodity crop yield declines. By the end of this century, absent significant adaptation by Iowa farmers, the state could face likely declines in its signature corn crop of 18 percent to 77 percent — a huge hit for a corn industry worth nearly $10 billion.” [Risky Business, January 2015] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 44 percent Sen. Chuck Grassley (R): “We had global warming between 1940 and 1998. Since then, we haven’t had a rise in temperature. That doesn’t mean we don’t have a problem. If that problem is going to be solved, it ought to be solved by an international treaty.” [Iowa Agribusiness Radio Network, 17 May 2014] Former Lt. Gov. Patty Judge (D): “Climate change is very real. It is a serious issue it should be treated that way … It is not just ours here in Iowa or even in the United States. One of the things that we need to do immediately is try to move our self away from petroleum-based or fuels from carbon-based fueling of this country, and, you know, we started doing that here in Iowa and we’ve been very successful with developing our alternative energy programs.” [Iowa Public Radio, 31 May 2016] Impacts of climate change: “Heatwaves, more powerful storms, and rising seas are increasingly transforming Maine — effects that most climate scientists trace to greenhouse gases warming the planet … Over the past 100 years, temperatures throughout the Northeast have risen by about 2 degrees Fahrenheit … Precipitation has increased by more than 10 percent, with the worst storms bringing significantly more rain and snow. And sea levels have climbed by a foot. A study by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute this year found that coastal waters are warming at a rate faster than 99 percent of the world’s other oceans.” [Boston Globe, 21 Sep 14] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 42 percent Presidential battleground? Yes. (Maine allocates electoral votes by congressional district, and the 2nd district is competitive.) Impacts of climate change: “Changing the climate is likely to harm water quality in Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Warmer water tends to cause more algal blooms, which can be unsightly, harm fish, and degrade water quality. During August 2014, an algal bloom in Lake Erie prompted the Monroe County Health Department to advise residents in four townships to avoid using tap water for cooking and drinking. Severe storms increase the amount of pollutants that run off from land to water, so the risk of algal blooms will be greater if storms become more severe. Severe rainstorms can also cause sewers to overflow into lakes and rivers, which can threaten beach safety and drinking water supplies.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Impacts of climate change: “The state has warmed 1 to 3 degrees F in the last century. Floods are becoming more frequent, and ice cover on lakes is forming later and melting sooner. In the coming decades, these trends are likely to continue. Rising temperatures may interfere with winter recreation, extend the growing season, change the composition of trees in the North Woods, and increase water pollution problems in lakes and rivers. The state will have more extremely hot days, which may harm public health in urban areas and corn harvests in rural areas.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Impacts of climate change: “Seventy years from now, Missouri is likely to have more than 25 days per year with temperatures above 95 degrees F, compared with 5 to 15 today. Hot weather causes cows to eat less, produce less milk, and grow more slowly — and it could threaten their health. Even during the next few decades, hotter summers are likely to reduce yields of corn. But higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase crop yields, and that fertilizing effect is likely to offset the harmful effects of heat on soybeans, assuming that adequate water is available. On farms without irrigation, however, increasingly severe droughts could cause more crop failures. ” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 45 percent Sen. Roy Blunt (R): “Electric service providers in Missouri have warned that the EPA’s so-called Clean Power Plan will raise energy costs for Missourians, reduce jobs, and hurt our state’s economic competitiveness. As a member of the Senate Appropriations Committee, I’ve fought hard to ensure provisions that would defund this harmful power grab were included in the final appropriations bill. I also support legislation to block this harmful rule and protect workers and families from the damaging effects of the Obama Administration’s executive overreach and costly energy regulations.” [Blunt press release, 3 Aug 2015] Missouri Secretary of State Jason Kander (D): “He understands that climate change is a real consequence of human activity and we have a moral obligation to address this challenge. That means reducing carbon pollution and accelerating our transition to clean energy, not only to protect our planet, but also to ensure our national security.” [Kander campaign website, accessed 31 Oct 2016] Eric Greitens (R): “Federal overreach from agencies like the EPA is hurting family farms. I will fight against these crippling regulations, and always side with the hard working farmers and ranchers of Missouri.” [Greitens campaign website, accessed 31 Oct 2016] Missouri Attorney Gen. Chris Koster (D): “The EPA’s Clean Power rule effectively eliminates Missouri’s competitive advantage as a low energy-cost state … A significant question exists whether the final rule goes beyond EPA’s authority to set emission standards … For these reasons, I have decided to file suit against the EPA as soon as the final rule is published. Look folks, I believe that climate change is real, and cleaner energy production is an important state goal, one Missouri’s energy producers are already aggressively working toward … However, it is essential that we achieve these goals in a responsible way that makes sense for Missouri’s economy and Missouri’s future.” [Koster speech transcript, 9 Oct 2015] Impacts of climate change: “Since the 1950s, the snowpack in Montana has been decreasing. Diminishing snowpack can shorten the season for skiing and other forms of winter tourism and recreation … More than one thousand glaciers cover about 26 square miles of mountains in Montana, but that area is decreasing in response to rising temperatures. Glacier National Park’s glaciers receded rapidly during the last century.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 46 percent Gov. Steve Bullock (D): “Steve believes Montanans should control our own energy future. He introduced a balanced and responsible plan that builds upon Montana’s traditional base of energy generation, like coal in Colstrip, while sparking a new generation of clean technology development, investing in renewables like wind and solar and encouraging innovation, savings, and energy efficiency for homes and businesses.” [Bullock campaign website, accessed 31 Oct 2016] Greg Gianforte (R): “This [the Supreme Court’s decision to halt the Clean Power Plan] is great news for Montana, but the fight isn’t over. We cannot rest. We must keep up the pressure and work to defeat this “costly power plan” once and for all.” [Gianfote press release, 9 Feb 2016] Impacts of climate change: “The number of high temperature stress days over 100 degrees F is projected to increase substantially in Nebraska and the Great Plains region. By mid-century (2041‐2070), this increase for Nebraska would equate to experiencing typical summer temperatures equivalent to those experienced during the 2012 drought and heatwave.” [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, September 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 47 percent Presidential battleground? Trump will win Nebraska, but the state awards its electoral votes by congressional district, and the 2nd district might be up for grabs. Impacts of climate change: “Much of Nevada’s tourist income comes from attractions that will be vulnerable to climate impacts. For instance, Las Vegas’ 45 golf courses, which are used by one-third of all visitors, could see a sharp decline in golfers due to rising temperatures and decreased water supplies … Lower water levels in Lake Mead significantly reduced recreational visitors, especially boaters, as marinas and docks were left high and dry.” [Demos, 19 Apr 2012] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 41 percent Former Nevada Attorney Gen. Catherine Cortez Masto (D): “The Clean Power Plan is a bold step not just in lowering carbon emissions, but also in creating the clean energy jobs of the future.  With our abundance of wind, solar, and geothermal energy, Nevada has been a leader in moving away from carbon emissions and embracing a clean energy economy that has created good-paying jobs in our state that can’t be shipped overseas.” [Cortez Masto campaign press release, 3 Aug 2015] Rep. Joe Heck (R): “To maintain our economic and national security, we must maximize all of our nation’s energy resources, including renewable sources, alternative fuels, and fossil fuels, all in a way that balances economic development and protecting our environment. Nevada is poised to lead our nation in renewable development and we must harness those resources. However, we shouldn’t penalize those that depend on fossil fuels for energy and the jobs they provide. [The Clean Power Plan] is not the all-of-the-above energy strategy needed to boost job creation and reduce energy prices for families.” [Heck press release, 3 Aug 2015] Electricity Deregulation (Question 3): Nevadans will be voting on a state constitutional amendment that would dismantle the monopoly held by NV Energy, the state’s biggest utility. If Question 3 passes — and then passes again in 2018 — consumers will be able to purchase power from any electricity retailer willing to sell it. The measure is backed by a number of large, energy-intensive businesses in the state, including Tesla and Sheldon Adelson’s Sands casinos. Proponents argue that deregulation will allow them to purchase cheaper renewable energy. According to the Wall Street Journal, one of Questions 3’s supporters, a Nevada data-storage company called Switch, “estimates it is currently paying NV Energy as much as 80 percent more for green power than it would pay a competitive supplier.” Opponents, including the state’s AFL-CIO chapter, counter that the measure could harm consumers and cost jobs, according to the Journal. (For more on the problems surrounding energy deregulation, read our investigation.) Impacts of climate change: “The frequency of extreme heat days is projected to increase dramatically, and the hottest days will be hotter, raising concerns regarding the impact of extreme, sustained heat on human health, infrastructure, and the electrical grid … Southern New Hampshire can also expect to experience more extreme precipitation events in the future. For example, under the high emissions scenario, events that drop more than four inches of precipitation in 48 hours are projected to increase two- to three-fold across much of southern New Hampshire by the end of the century.” [University of New Hampshire, 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Gov. Maggie Hassan (D): “Yes, I do [believe climate change is man-made]. I have been fighting climate change and working to improve our environment. Sen. Ayotte, when she first ran for the United States Senate, doubted whether climate change was real. And I have the endorsement of the Sierra Club, and I’m very proud of that.” [NH1 TV debate via Media Matters, 27 Oct 2016] Sen. Kelly Ayotte (R): “I do believe that [climate change] is real, and Gov. Hassan again needs to understand that I was the first Republican in the country to support the president’s Clean Power Plan, that I’ve crossed party lines, even taken criticism from my own party to protect New Hampshire’s environment, and that goes back to my time as attorney general.” [NH1 TV debate via Media Matters, 27 Oct 2016] Chris Sununu, member of the New Hampshire Executive Council (R): “I’m an environmental engineer … The Earth has been slowly warming since the mid-1800s; there’s not doubt about that. Is it man-made or not? Look, one thing I do know: Nobody knows for sure … One of the biggest concerns of this entire issue is that we’ve created all this regulation that pushes down on businesses and pushes down on individuals. I’m going to free that up and do it smart and responsibly.” [WMUR debate, 7 Sep 2016] Colin Van Ostern, member of the New Hampshire Executive Council (D): “Van Ostern is a strong advocate for clean energy, and he’ll increase investment in solar and renewable energy. He believes clean energy projects are critical for boosting our clean tech economy, limiting energy costs, protecting our environment, and creating thousands of jobs.” [Van Ostern campaign website, accessed 3 Nov 2016] Impacts of climate change: “Most of the state has warmed 0.5 to 1 degree F in the last century, and the sea is rising about one inch every decade. Higher water levels are eroding beaches, submerging low lands, exacerbating coastal flooding, and increasing the salinity of estuaries and aquifers.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 44 percent Sen. Richard Burr (R): “US Sen. Richard Burr, R-N.C., voted against legislation in January 2015 that declared in part that ‘human activity contributes to climate change.’ … ‘Senator Burr believes that climate change is real and humans do contribute to those changes,’ said spokesman Jesse Hunt. ‘However, it is his belief that the best way to reduce emissions and pollution is not through partisan political theater but through developing consensus on areas that will bring about effectual change.'” [Citizen-Times, 4 Oct 2016] Former State Rep. Deborah Ross (D): “[Ross] voted repeatedly to support clean energy, oppose fracking, address climate change, and protect North Carolina’s land, air, and water … Deborah knows that we need to slow the harmful effects of climate change. The best ways to do this are to invest in renewable energy and clean technology.” [Ross campaign website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Gov. Pat McCrory (R): “I believe there is climate change. I’m not sure you can call it climate warming anymore, especially here in the Carolinas. I think the big debate is how much of it is man-made and how much of it will just naturally happen as Earth evolves.” [ABC, 16 Feb 2014] North Carolina Attorney Gen. Roy Cooper (D): “A strong economy and a healthy environment go hand-in-hand. I am glad North Carolina has become a leader in renewable energy technology and that energy companies are shifting toward more sustainable power supplies than coal. As Attorney General, I have disagreed with the state environmental regulators who were focused on scoring political points rather than protecting our water, air, and other natural resources.” [Cooper campaign website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Impacts of climate change: “In Lake Erie, the changing climate is likely to harm water quality. Warmer water tends to cause more algal blooms, which can be unsightly, harm fish, and degrade water quality. During August 2014, an algal bloom in Lake Erie prompted the City of Toledo to ban drinking and cooking with tap water. Severe storms also increase the amount of pollutants that run off from land to water, so the risk of algal blooms will be greater if storms become more severe. Increasingly severe rainstorms could also cause sewers to overflow into the Great Lakes more often, threatening beach safety and drinking water supplies.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 45 percent Sen. Rob Portman (R): “[Portman voted] ‘yes’ this week on an amendment declaring that climate change is real, caused by human activity, and Congress should do something about it. In January, Portman voted ‘no’ on a similar amendment, which said ‘human activity significantly’ contributes to climate change … Portman, who is seeking reelection in a key swing state, said he opposed the January measure because he’s not sure how much of a factor human activity is in global warming. ‘I’m not going to quantify it because scientists have a lot of different views on that,’ he told reporters Thursday … Portman has been a vocal opponent of the Obama administration’s new regulations designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power plants 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.” [Cincinnati Enquirer, 29 Mar 2015] Former Gov. Ted Strickland (D): “Strickland supports Obama’s plan to cut carbon dioxide emissions from coal-burning power plants while boosting clean-energy jobs. He says he wants to be sure its implementation doesn’t hurt Ohio, although it is unclear how he or anyone could do anything about it if that happens. But one way, he and other Democrats say, is to support expansion of alternative energy sources — wind, solar, biomass — and help those industries become catalysts for jobs. As governor, Strickland signed a bill with the goal of getting 25 percent of electricity sold in Ohio to come from alternative energy sources by 2025 — a plan that Gov. John Kasich, who defeated Strickland in 2010, put on ice.” [Cleveland Plain Dealer, 3 Sep 2015] Impacts of climate change: “Reduced snowpacks, less water for irrigation, drought-related wildfires, rising sea levels and insect-infested timber. Those are just a few of the impacts of climate disruption that could affect Oregonians, two environmental groups warned Tuesday.” [The Oregonian, 6 May 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 40 percent Gov. Kate Brown (D): “This year, Oregon became the first state to envision a future without coal-powered electricity when Kate signed the nation’s first ‘coal-to-clean’ law, which will completely phase out dirty coal power by 2030 and double Oregon’s reliance on renewable energy by 2040. In 2015, she stood up to Big Oil and signed a law that bolsters the use of cleaner-burning vehicle fuels in Oregon. Kate will continue the fight to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and support innovation that reduces Oregon’s reliance on fossil fuels.” [Brown campaign website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Bud Pierce (R): “Repeal the Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Law so ordinary Oregonians will not have to spend an extra 19 cents to a dollar per gallon of gasoline in a hidden gas tax whose proceeds will go to state-favored, out-of-state green energy companies.” [Pierce campaign website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Impacts of climate change: “The commonwealth has warmed more than half a degree F in the last century, heavy rainstorms are more frequent, and the tidal portion of the Delaware River is rising about one inch every eight years. In the coming decades, changing the climate is likely to increase flooding, harm ecosystems, disrupt farming, and increase some risks to human health.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 44 percent Sen. Pat Toomey (R): “Senator Toomey believes that coal is an essential part of America’s energy future, not to mention an important part of Pennsylvania’s economy. Unfortunately, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been especially aggressive in pursuing regulations that specifically target coal power plants. These regulations have already put hundreds of Pennsylvanians out of work and will continue to cause economic distress while yielding negligible benefits for our environment.” [Toomey Senate website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Katie McGinty, former Pennsylvania Secretary of Environmental Protection (D): “Climate change presents a serious global threat to our health, economic well-being and national security. In the Senate, I will lead the way to a healthier and safer environment by working to pass commonsense climate protections with investments in energy efficiency and clean energy.” [McGinty campaign website, accessed 1 Nov 2016] Impacts of climate change: “[Utah] has warmed about 2 degrees F in the last century. Throughout the western United States, heatwaves are becoming more common, and snow is melting earlier in spring. In the coming decades, the changing climate is likely to decrease the flow of water in Utah’s rivers, increase the frequency and intensity of wildfires, and decrease the productivity of ranches and farms.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 48 percent Impacts of climate change: “High nighttime temperatures are increasingly common and have widespread impacts on humans, recreation and energy demand. In winter months, warmer nighttime temperatures threaten snow and ice cover for winter recreation. In summer months, this causes increased demand for cooling. An increase in high-energy electric (lighting) storms is projected to continue particularly threatening infrastructure and transportation systems.” [Vermont Climate Assessment, 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 38 percent Sue Minter, former Vermont Secretary of Transportation (D): “I’m opposed to a carbon tax. But I am very concerned about climate change. And I think it is clear that change is not just real — it is here; it is having an enormous effect on all of us … I have plans to address climate change, focusing on our clean, green energy future here. Looking at collaborating with other northeastern states like we’ve done before to reduce carbon emissions.” [WPTZ debate via Media Matters, 25 Oct 2016] Lt. Gov. Phil Scott: “I would veto [a carbon tax] if it hit my desk. I believe that this would just ratchet up the cost of living across Vermont. I don’t think that we can afford it. I’m not looking to do anything that would raise the cost of living on already-struggling Vermonters.” [WPTZ debate via Media Matters, 25 Oct 2016] Former baseball player Bill Lee (Liberty Union Party): Um, well, just watch this video: Impacts of climate change: “The combination of land subsidence, sea-level rise, flat and low tidewater topography and intensive coastal real estate and infrastructure development puts southeastern Virginia, namely the Virginia Beach/Norfolk/Hampton Roads region, at extreme risk from storm surges … Climate change will make the situation much worse.” [Demos, 19 Apr 2012] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Impacts of climate change: “During the next century, average annual precipitation and the frequency of heavy downpours are likely to keep rising. Average precipitation is likely to increase during winter and spring but not change significantly during summer and fall. Rising temperatures will melt snow earlier in spring and increase evaporation, and thereby dry the soil during summer and fall. As a result, changing the climate is likely to intensify flooding during winter and spring, and droughts during summer and fall.” [EPA, August 2016] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 49 percent Jim Justice, billionaire coal baron (D): “Until we have really accurate data to prove [that humans contribute to climate change] I don’t think we need to blow our legs off on a concept. I welcome the scientific approach to it and the knowledge. I would not sit here and say, ‘absolutely now, there’s no such thing’ or I would no way on Earth say there is such a thing. I believe there’s an awful lot of scientist that say, ‘no, no, no, this is just smoke and mirrors.’ I welcome the discussion, but I don’t know, I just don’t know.” [The Register-Herald, 27 Apr 2016] State Senate President Bill Cole, (R): “West Virginia must continue to lead the fight for our energy industry against an Obama administration that’s dead set on destroying the development of fossil fuels. The rich history of our state has always been tied to its abundance of natural resources. Those whose motives are highly questionable — will say that the days of coal, oil and gas are over and that we need to move on to solar, wind and other alternative sources of power … Bill Cole supports Donald Trump for President because he will allow our miners to go back to work, let us harness our natural gas, and free us of the impossible roadblock to growth that is the EPA.” [Cole campaign website, accessed 3 Nov 2016] Impacts of climate change: “In Washington and Oregon, more than 140,000 acres of coastal lands lie within 3.3 feet in elevation of high tide. As sea levels continue to rise, these areas will be inundated more frequently … Ocean acidification threatens culturally and commercially significant marine species directly affected by changes in ocean chemistry (such as oysters) and those affected by changes in the marine food web (such as Pacific salmon) … Warmer water in regional estuaries (such as Puget Sound) may contribute to a higher incidence of harmful blooms of algae linked to paralytic shellfish poisoning.” [National Climate Assessment, 2014] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 40 percent Carbon Tax (I-732): Washington voters will decide whether to adopt a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Revenue from the tax would be offset through a sales tax reduction, as well as through tax rebates and credits to individuals and businesses. A number of environmentalists support I-732, but other environmentalists oppose it; they argue that it won’t do enough to support clean energy, that it will disproportionately hurt low-income residents, and that communities of color didn’t have enough input in developing the proposal. Impacts of climate change: “Research suggests that warming temperatures in spring and fall would help boost agricultural production by extending the growing season across the state. However, increased warming during the summer months could reduce yields of crops such as corn and soybeans, with studies suggesting that every 2 degrees F of warming could decrease corn yields by 13 percent and soybean yields by 16 percent.” [Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, 2011] Percentage of residents who are climate deniers: 43 percent Sen. Ron Johnson (R): “I’ve never denied climate change. It’s always changed, always will. I would ask the questioner: What would happen if we had no sun? It would be a cold, hard rock orbiting in space. So obviously the sun has the primary effect on weather and climate on planet Earth. So I’m just not a climate change alarmist … The jury’s out [on man-made climate change] … I’m a skeptic.” [Milwaukee Journal Sentinel interview, 21 Oct 2016] Former Sen. Russ Feingold (D): “This is enormously threatening to the future of our country and our planet. Anyone who talks about children, grandchildren, great grandchildren has to take this seriously. The climate is obviously changing dramatically.” [WUWM Milwaukee Public Radio, 2 Nov 2016]


News Article | August 28, 2016
Site: phys.org

The Gulf of Maine's once strong population of wild blue mussels is disappearing, scientists say. A study led by marine ecologists at the University of California at Irvine found the numbers along the gulf coastline have declined by more than 60 percent over the last 40 years. Once covering as much as two-thirds of the gulf's intertidal zone, mussels now cover less than 15 percent. "It would be like losing a forest," said biologist Cascade Sorte, who with her colleagues at the university conducted the study and recently published their findings in the Global Change Biology journal. The Gulf of Maine stretches from Cape Cod to Canada and is a key marine environment and important to commercial fishing. Blue mussels are used in seafood dishes and worth millions to the economy of some New England states, but are also important in moving bacteria and toxins out of the water. "It's so disheartening to see it (the loss) in our marine habitats. We're losing the habitats they create," she said. Disheartening, and also sometimes a smelly nuisance. Thousands of dead mussels washed up last week on the shores of Long Island, New York, and a Stony Brook University professor said the die-off could be attributable to warm water temperature. The Sorte study focused on 20 sites along the gulf, using historical data to compare today's mussel populations to those of the past. She said the decline of mussels isn't due to just one factor—warming ocean water, increases in human harvesting and the introduction of new predatory invasive species all appear to play a role. The marine environment will suffer, she said, if they continue to decline, and it's possible they could become extinct in some areas. Scott Morello, a researcher who has studied mussels with The Downeast Institute for Applied Marine Research & Education in Maine, said Sorte's work reflects observations that people who work on the water have made in recent years. "It's not just scientists," he said. "I can tell you that most residents I've talked to, most fishermen I've talked to will point out the same dramatic decrease in mussels." The nationwide value of wild blue mussels has reached new heights in recent years, peaking at more than $13 million at the dock in 2013—more than twice the 2007 total. They were worth more than $10 million in 2014, when fishermen brought nearly 4 million pounds of them ashore. Maine and Massachusetts are by far the biggest states for wild mussel harvesting, and many are also harvested in Washington state. They are also farmed in aquaculture operations. The vast majority of the mussels that people eat are farmed, and most that are available to U.S. consumers are imported from other countries, such as Canada. Mussel farming is dependent on wild mussels, which produce the larvae needed for the farmed shellfish to grow. Andrew Pershing, chief scientific officer of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, said the loss of wild mussels is troubling for aquaculture because if wild populations decline further, it could constrain the growth of the industry. Pershing also said Sorte's study shows there is a need to get better data about the abundance of mussels and how they are affected by warming waters and commercial harvesting. "If we had a record of how mussels changed from year to year, it would be possible to see whether declines were more pronounced during particularly warm years or are related to some other event or process," he said. Explore further: Researchers optimize growing conditions and practices to improve mussel farming


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.npr.org

Fishermen Team Up With Scientists To Make A More Selective Net Some New England fishermen are pinning their hopes on a new kind of trawl net being used in the Gulf of Maine, one that scoops up abundant flatfish such as flounder and sole while avoiding species such as cod, which are in severe decline. For centuries, cod were plentiful and a prime target for the Gulf of Maine fleet. But in recent years, catch quotas have been drastically reduced as the number of cod of reproductive age have dropped perilously low. For many boats, that turned the formerly prized groundfish into unwanted bycatch. And for fishermen, it can be tough to avoid cod while trying to catch other fish. The stakes are high. "Say tomorrow I go out, have a 10,000 set of cod and I only have 4,000 pounds of quota, essentially your sector manager — the person that oversees this — would shut me down," says Jim Ford, whose trawler is based in Newburyport, Mass. Not only that, Ford would be forced to "lease" cod quota allowances from other fishermen to cover his overage. The cost of such leases, he says, can quickly outweigh the value of the cod that's inadvertently caught. "And I would pay a ridiculous price. And then you're shut down, you can't even go fishing," he says. But instead of joining the growing number of New England fishermen hanging up their nets, Ford has worked to modify the nets themselves. This summer he joined a net-maker and scientists at Portland's Gulf of Maine Research Institute to design a trawl net that targets profitable species while avoiding cod. "I think of the net as a cone of netting being pulled through the water and over the sea bed," says Steve Eayrs, the GMRI scientist who led the project. Eayrs says the typical flattish trawl net has an opening height of about 6 feet. Flounder, pollock and grey sole all keep very low to the seabed, while cod typically swim a few feet above. The challenge was to design a functional net with a much smaller vertical opening — about 2 feet high. "By reducing the height of the net and making modifications to the top panel of the net, we allowed the cod that swim above the seabed to actually swim over the top of the net," he says. After testing the modified net in a Newfoundland simulator tank, Ford and Eayrs took it to sea for a real-world trial. For 12 days they fished using both the new net and a traditional net, and the results were good. "We were able to avoid around half the cod, compared to a traditional net, and still retain the flatfish. And so for fishermen who are still being profitable, they are still maintaining their flatfish. They weren't losing any," Eayrs says. "We had a good reduction in cod. And we didn't lose any on flounders. I'd say we were pretty even on the flounders," Ford says. He says the ultra-low-opening trawl net also produced less drag, saving on fuel. He liked it well enough to take it out again. GMRI is making three of the modified nets available for fishermen to try out free, an important option when nets can cost $10,000 or more. This type of innovation has become prevalent over the past six years, as regulators have deployed a quota system that frequently changes its parameters as one species or another becomes more or less abundant. "The Gulf of Maine is essentially a portfolio of different species," says Brett Alger, a groundfish policy analyst at the Greater Atlantic Regional Fisheries Office. "There's always going to be and always should be gear innovations, technological advances in the fishery to help support fishermen reach not only their fisheries' goals but their business goals." In these hard times, the goals include basic survival, for fishermen and fish populations: At the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Eayrs' next challenge is to try to help both the gulf ecosystem and its fishermen with an off-bottom trawl that will target haddock and redfish, while avoiding cod and other less abundant species.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.npr.org

Fishermen Team Up With Scientists To Make A More Selective Net Some New England fishermen are pinning their hopes on a new kind of trawl net being used in the Gulf of Maine, one that scoops up abundant flatfish such as flounder and sole while avoiding species such as cod, which are in severe decline. For centuries, cod were plentiful and a prime target for the Gulf of Maine fleet. But in recent years, catch quotas have been drastically reduced as the number of cod of reproductive age have dropped perilously low. For many boats, that turned the formerly prized groundfish into unwanted bycatch. And for fishermen, it can be tough to avoid cod while trying to catch other fish. The stakes are high. "Say tomorrow I go out, have a 10,000 set of cod and I only have 4,000 pounds of quota, essentially your sector manager — the person that oversees this — would shut me down," says Jim Ford, whose trawler is based in Newburyport, Mass. Not only that, Ford would be forced to "lease" cod quota allowances from other fishermen to cover his overage. The cost of such leases, he says, can quickly outweigh the value of the cod that's inadvertently caught. "And I would pay a ridiculous price. And then you're shut down, you can't even go fishing," he says. But instead of joining the growing number of New England fishermen hanging up their nets, Ford has worked to modify the nets themselves. This summer he joined a net-maker and scientists at Portland's Gulf of Maine Research Institute to design a trawl net that targets profitable species while avoiding cod. "I think of the net as a cone of netting being pulled through the water and over the sea bed," says Steve Eayrs, the GMRI scientist who led the project. Eayrs says the typical flattish trawl net has an opening height of about 6 feet. Flounder, pollock and grey sole all keep very low to the seabed, while cod typically swim a few feet above. The challenge was to design a functional net with a much smaller vertical opening — about 2 feet high. "By reducing the height of the net and making modifications to the top panel of the net, we allowed the cod that swim above the seabed to actually swim over the top of the net," he says. After testing the modified net in a Newfoundland simulator tank, Ford and Eayrs took it to sea for a real-world trial. For 12 days they fished using both the new net and a traditional net, and the results were good. "We were able to avoid around half the cod, compared to a traditional net, and still retain the flatfish. And so for fishermen who are still being profitable, they are still maintaining their flatfish. They weren't losing any," Eayrs says. "We had a good reduction in cod. And we didn't lose any on flounders. I'd say we were pretty even on the flounders," Ford says. He says the ultra-low-opening trawl net also produced less drag, saving on fuel. He liked it well enough to take it out again. GMRI is making three of the modified nets available for fishermen to try out free, an important option when nets can cost $10,000 or more. This type of innovation has become prevalent over the past six years, as regulators have deployed a quota system that frequently changes its parameters as one species or another becomes more or less abundant. "The Gulf of Maine is essentially a portfolio of different species," says Brett Alger, a groundfish policy analyst at the Greater Atlantic Regional Fisheries Office. "There's always going to be and always should be gear innovations, technological advances in the fishery to help support fishermen reach not only their fisheries' goals but their business goals." In these hard times, the goals include basic survival, for fishermen and fish populations: At the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Eayrs' next challenge is to try to help both the gulf ecosystem and its fishermen with an off-bottom trawl that will target haddock and redfish, while avoiding cod and other less abundant species.


Holland D.S.,Gulf of Maine Research Institute
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

Bycatch is a nearly universal problem for fisheries, and it is increasingly common to place strict limits on allowable bycatch either on individuals or an industry sector. Individual bycatch quotas strengthen individual incentives to avoid bycatch and may reduce the likelihood that the bycatch cap will limit target species catch. However, in cases where bycatch is highly uncertain and variable, individual quotas and markets may be subject to high price variability and may fail to allocate quota efficiently. In some cases such as sea turtles, marine mammals, rare seabird and certain fish species, the allowable take may be less than one per permit holder. There are a number of reasons to believe that a transferable quota market may not function effectively in these cases. I explore the implications of stochasticity and uncertainty of bycatch for valuing quota in an individual bycatch quota system. I explore the degree to which a quota market increases expected profit and reduces individual risk relative to simply having a non-transferable individual bycatch quota, and how pooling approaches and possibly market insurance can be used to reduce financial risk for fishermen associated with uncertain bycatch. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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