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Ghatak A.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC
Journal of Health Management

In an agrarian economy economic impact of illness acts not only through out of pocket expenditure, but also through loss of labour time and wages at the individual level. Using the information collected from 676 respondents at selected villages in West Bengal from 2009 to 2010, the present paper examines the impact of health on labour supply behaviour and wages. Theoretically the study borrows the idea of nutrition-based efficiency wage hypothesis and builds a conceptual framework based on capability approach. The methodology follows a household production function model. Nutritional dimension of health as indicated by body mass index (BMI) has been found to have a positive and significant impact on labour supply for both the male and female respondents. Age is found to have significantly non-linear impact on labour supply. Hence, public policies to improve the sex and age composition of the households through appropriate channels, that is, health and fertility may be necessary. Finally, the results suggest a revision in the design of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) programme by integrating it with other developmental programmes on health, sanitation and skill development in order to ensure productivity of rural manual labourers. Experience of some other countries like South Africa and Brazil suggests the need to integrate public works programmes with programmes that target health and family welfare issues particularly in the context of rural livelihood. © 2014 Indian Institute of Health Management Research. Source

Bahinipati C.S.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research | Venkatachalam L.,Madras Institute of Development Studies
Regional Environmental Change

Economic costs imposed by climatic extremes have been increasing over the years and are expected to follow a similar trend in the coming years as well. Such costs are incurred due to two factors: (1) natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change and (2) exposure and vulnerability of socio-economic factors. The impact of these factors as identified separately through a ‘normalisation technique’ is analysed in the existing normalisation studies conducted mostly in developed country contexts; these have produced mixed results. However, one needs to enquire about the influence of the above two factors in a developing country context where the anticipated impacts of climate extremes are significant. This study, therefore, makes an attempt to adjust impact data, in terms of the reported population affected and economic damages of three extreme events, namely cyclones, floods and droughts, together for societal changes between 1972 and 2009 in Odisha in eastern India. Further, the second component is analysed in two ways: (1) assuming that exposed socio-economic factors are equally vulnerable similar to the other normalisation studies, i.e. no adaptation and (2) incorporating adaptation in the existing normalisation methods—which has attracted less attention so far in the literature. The results suggest that: (a) both the natural climate variability and the socio-economic factors influence the increasing damages in the recent decades, and (b) when adaptation is introduced in the normalisation model, economic losses have reduced significantly compared to the estimates using the existing normalisation models. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Shah A.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research
Economic and Political Weekly

The supporters of liberalisation often argue that if the modern food retail sector is allowed a full round of liberalisation, it may have various positive outcomes, including a reduction in prices. This article raises a counter question, what if the markets, as it happens in several instances, fail to deliver on account of the structural snags that may continue to persist in a rapidly growing and yet highly segmented economy? Source

Dhak B.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research
Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues

This study investigates the. determinants for seeking ante-natal care and institutional delivery in relation to low-level of maternal health care utilization; and its correlation with the socio-economic status of the users as well as their accessibility to the health centre. Using a nationally representative data set from the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), this study reiterates the low level of maternal health care utilization in rural India and shows a correlation with both various socio-economic factors and accessibility to health facilities. The findings reveal that socioeconomic factors account a lot for utilisation of maternal health care than their accessibility to the health care facilities. Further, it has been observed that self-motivation fails to ensure women with maternal health care utilization unless they are motivated or permitted by their husbands or mother in-laws. Source

A large number of farmers' livelihoods are susceptible to cyclones and floods, and farmers are taking up several adaptation mechanisms. Previous studies, therefore, have examined determinants of various adaptation options and provide policy suggestions to promote a specific one. However, options are undertaken at different points depending on the nature and intensity of extreme events. Hence, it is imperative to identify factors influencing farmers' decisions to adopt an additional option, particularly during ex-ante and ex-post periods. This could assist policymakers to enhance various farm-level adaptation options. Using survey data from 285 farm households in cycloneand flood-prone regions in eastern India, this study aims to assess the determinants of adaptation diversity. This study finds that the likelihood of undertaking adaptation diversity is high during the ex-post period, and cycloneaffected farmers are likely to adopt a higher number of adaptation measures. Further, size of household, farming experience, per capita income, agriculture as major source of income and crop loss compensation received are some of the important determinants. These findings emphasize the need for investments in scientific modeling for better prediction of extreme events and suggest restructuring the existing institutions to promote several farm-level adaptation measures. © 2015 IWA Publishing. Source

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