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Baskaran N.,Indian Institute of Science | Anbarasan U.,Indian Institute of Science | Agoramoorthy G.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology | Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2012

This paper presents data on the impact of biotic pressure in terms of grazing by livestock and wood cutting by humans on the plant community in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve of India. Grass, and herbaceous plant biomass, number of cattle dung piles, number of woody stems available and damaged by human activities and weed biomass were assessed at different proximity along transects radiating from village-forest boundary to forest interior to measure the ecological impact of livestock grazing and fire wood collection. The grass biomass was positively correlated to overgrazing indicating the adverse effect on natural vegetation by cattle. Woodcutting was intense along the forest boundary and significantly declined as distance increased. Similarly, weed biomass and number of thorny species declined positively with proximity from village-forest boundary and the weed biomass was significantly higher in the pastoral sites compared to residential sites. The results suggest that human impact adversely affects natural vegetation and promotes weed proliferation in forest areas adjoining human settlements in the ecologically important Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Continued anthropogenic pressure could cause reduction in fodder availability to large herbivores like elephants, which in turn leads to an increase in human-elephant conflict. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Mahato A.K.R.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology | Majumder S.S.,Indian Institute of Science | De J.K.,Zoological Survey of India | Ramakrishna A.,Zoological Survey of India
Ethology Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

A comparative study was made to observe the change in basic activities of Blue bull due to solar eclipse. The study was conducted over 3 consecutive days including the day of a partial solar eclipse (22 July 2009), 1 day earlier and 1 day after at the Zoological Garden, Alipur, Kolkata. The activities of individuals of both sexes were recorded by two observers by applying the focal animal sampling method. It was observed that the time spent in feeding, scanning, lying and social activities was increased or decreased on the day of the solar eclipse. A significant difference in some activities between normal days and the day of the solar eclipse varied among male and female individuals. It was also recorded that the average duration of scanning and lying in males increased on the day of the solar eclipse, while in females the average duration of standing, scanning and walking increased, and lying decreased, on the day of the solar eclipse. The recorded data reveals that the rate of feeding, lying and social activities of males decreased in solar eclipse hours while the rate of feeding decreased and the rate of scanning increased in females in solar eclipse hours. In conclusion, the results show changes in basic activities of Blue bull in comparison to a normal day. We may conclude that the normal cycle of the basic activities of Blue bull maintained by the biological clock system was guided to some degree by the phenomenon of the solar eclipse. © 2013 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, Italia. Source

Kumar D.,M. S. University of Baroda | Pardeshi M.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

Termite sampling was carried out in four selected crops (i.e. sugarcane, wheat, cotton and castor) and unhealthy plants were sampled/checked to find out presence of termites. Furthermore, all possible habitats on hedges of agriculture field were also checked and termites were collected if present. Overall, 15 termite species were recorded from the study area, out of which only five species were found as a pest of selected crops. A species, O. obesus was dominant and recorded as a pest of all four crops. All pest species were common and dominant (highest percent presence) in the study area. Furthermore, all pest species had wider niche breadth as compare to other species. Relation between pest species and their niche breadth is discussed. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Sigamani S.,Annamalai University | Perumal M.,Annamalai University | Thivakaran G.A.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology | Thangavel B.,Annamalai University | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

Nowadays, marine ecosystem monitoring and assessment are increasingly depending on variety of molecular tools. With these background, DNA barcoding play a key role in species identification with increasing speed and accuracy, and although the suitability for developing genetic tools like genomic AMBI (gAMBI). Presently we have submitted 13 benthic polychaete species using mtCOI to GenBank. Of these, nine species were newly submitted, and hence they act as a benchmark and reference organism for identifying respective polychaete species worldwide in the near future. Based on that, our study results tend to be helpful for motivating among the researcher in order to implementing the genomic AMBI (gAMBI). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Srivastava P.K.,NASA | Srivastava P.K.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Mehta A.,Birla Institute of Technology | Mehta A.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2015

Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious ecosystem. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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