PubMed | Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Science and Commerce College and Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2015
Phosphorus is the second important key element after nitrogen as a mineral nutrient in terms of quantitative plant requirement. Although abundant in soils, in both organic and inorganic forms, its availability is restricted as it occurs mostly in insoluble forms. The P content in average soil is about 0.05% (w/w) but only 0.1% of the total P is available to plant because of poor solubility and its fixation in soil (Illmer and Schinner, Soil Biol Biochem 27:257-263, 1995). An adequate supply of phosphorus during early phases of plant development is important for laying down the primordia of plant reproductive parts. It plays significant role in increasing root ramification and strength thereby imparting vitality and disease resistance capacity to plant. It also helps in seed formation and in early maturation of crops like cereals and legumes. Poor availability or deficiency of phosphorus (P) markedly reduces plant size and growth. Phosphorus accounts about 0.2 - 0.8% of the plant dry weight. To satisfy crop nutritional requirements, P is usually added to soil as chemical P fertilizer, however synthesis of chemical P fertilizer is highly energy intensive processes, and has long term impacts on the environment in terms of eutrophication, soil fertilility depletion, carbon footprint. Moreover, plants can use only a small amount of this P since 75-90% of added P is precipitated by metal-cation complexes, and rapidly becomes fixed in soils. Such environmental concerns have led to the search for sustainable way of P nutrition of crops. In this regards phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) have been seen as best eco-friendly means for P nutrition of crop. Although, several bacterial (pseudomonads and bacilli) and fungal strains (Aspergilli and Penicillium) have been identified as PSM their performance under in situ conditions is not reliable and therefore needs to be improved by using either genetically modified strains or co-inoculation techniques. This review focuses on the diversity of PSM, mechanism of P solubilization, role of various phosphatases, impact of various factors on P solubilization, the present and future scenario of their use and potential for application of this knowledge in managing a sustainable environmental system.
Srivastava P.K.,NASA |
Srivastava P.K.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Mehta A.,Birla Institute of Technology |
Mehta A.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2015
Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious ecosystem. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.
Baskaran N.,Indian Institute of Science |
Anbarasan U.,Indian Institute of Science |
Agoramoorthy G.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2012
This paper presents data on the impact of biotic pressure in terms of grazing by livestock and wood cutting by humans on the plant community in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve of India. Grass, and herbaceous plant biomass, number of cattle dung piles, number of woody stems available and damaged by human activities and weed biomass were assessed at different proximity along transects radiating from village-forest boundary to forest interior to measure the ecological impact of livestock grazing and fire wood collection. The grass biomass was positively correlated to overgrazing indicating the adverse effect on natural vegetation by cattle. Woodcutting was intense along the forest boundary and significantly declined as distance increased. Similarly, weed biomass and number of thorny species declined positively with proximity from village-forest boundary and the weed biomass was significantly higher in the pastoral sites compared to residential sites. The results suggest that human impact adversely affects natural vegetation and promotes weed proliferation in forest areas adjoining human settlements in the ecologically important Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Continued anthropogenic pressure could cause reduction in fodder availability to large herbivores like elephants, which in turn leads to an increase in human-elephant conflict. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.
Chinnasamy P.,University of Missouri |
Hubbart J.A.,University of Missouri |
Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University |
Agoramoorthy G.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology
Earth Interactions | Year: 2013
India is the greatest groundwater consumer in the world, with estimated annual withdrawals exceeding 230 km3. More than 60% of irrigated agriculture, 85% of drinking water supplies, and 50% of urban and industrial water needs are dependent on sustainable groundwater management. Regardless, groundwater overextraction is a growing problem in many regions. Predictions of groundwater resource availability in India are problematic in part because of a limited number of monitoring sites and insufficient data quality and quantity. Regional groundwater assessments are further complicated because of sporadic and low-frequency data. To help overcome these issues and more accurately quantify groundwater resource availability, scientists have begun using satellite-derived remote sensing data. In this study, the authors used seasonal and annual hydrologic signals obtained by NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and simulated soil moisture variations from land data assimilation systems to show groundwater depletion trends in the northwest state of Gujarat (surface area of 196 030 km2), India. Results were evaluated using direct measurement data from 935 wells. Remote sensing generated results compared favorably with well data (e.g., r2 5 0.89 for Gandhinagar, a representative highly urbanized district in Gujarat: confidence interval (CI) 5 0.05 and P50.002). Results show that remote sensing is an effective tool to compliment and interpolate observed regional groundwater well data and improve groundwater storage estimations in Gujarat, India. Properly implemented, the method will supply reliable science-based information to enhance management of groundwater resources in India and other geographic locations. © 2013.
PubMed | Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Tecnalia and Annamalai University
Type: | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2016
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
Karthikeyan K.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
Shweta K.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
Shweta K.,Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University |
Jayanthi G.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2015
The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity was evaluated for the marine seaweeds viz., Enteromorpha sp. Cystoseria indica, Sargassum swartzii, Gracilaria corticata, Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa from Kodinar coast, Gujarat. Different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether were used for seaweed extraction to envisage the antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity were determined in ethanol extracted seaweeds. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in the ethanol extract of all the seaweeds except C. racemosa. Among the seaweeds, the total antioxidant potential was found to be maximum in the ethanol extract of S. swartzii - 19.84±0.14 (19.8 mg of Ascorbic acid/g of seaweed extract) and the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity was shown by the ethanol extract of S. swartzii (81.63±0.39 % inhibition) compared to the control (ascorbic acid) 95.24±0.22. Hence, from the present study it is evident that the seaweeds collected from Kodinar coast harbors excellent inhibitory activity against various human pathogens and has significant antioxidant potential as well. In particular, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of S. swartzii was found to be excellent and can be pointed out as the best candidate among the other seaweeds tested. © 2015 Kannan Karthikeyan et al.
PubMed | Autonomous University of Yucatán, Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, National Water Research Institute and University of Cádiz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016
In Yucatan, Mexico, chronic exposure of Mayan population to pesticides is expected as about 30 per cent are drinking polluted water. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) were monitored in 18 municipalities of Yucatan with high mortality rates due to uterine cervix cancer. 70 blood samples collected from Mayan women living in livestock, agricultural and metropolitan area were analyzed for OCP. Solid Phase Extraction was performed on C18 cartridges and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The results showed that the highest OCP levels were detected in blood of women living in the livestock area. OCP detected were endosulfan I (7.35g/mL), aldrin (3.69g/mL), 4,4 DDD (2.33g/mL), 1.39 and 1.46g/mL of -HCH. Women from the agricultural area had high concentrations of OCP in their blood, particularly dieldrin (1.19g/mL), and 1.26g/mL of 4,4 DDE. In the metropolitan area, 0.080g/mL of -HCH and 0.064g/mL of heptachlore were detected. This monitoring study was also based on epidemiological data of uterine cervical cancer. It was found that environmental factors may have facilitated the infiltration of OCP to the aquifer used for potable water supply. These factors in addition to poverty can have impacts on public health. This first exploratory study suggests that monitoring of OCP in human is important for the establishment of health promotion programs. The integrative analysis of both, environmental and social factors would be helpful to characterize the bioaccumulation of pesticides in humans.
Kumar D.,M. S. University of Baroda |
Pardeshi M.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011
Termite sampling was carried out in four selected crops (i.e. sugarcane, wheat, cotton and castor) and unhealthy plants were sampled/checked to find out presence of termites. Furthermore, all possible habitats on hedges of agriculture field were also checked and termites were collected if present. Overall, 15 termite species were recorded from the study area, out of which only five species were found as a pest of selected crops. A species, O. obesus was dominant and recorded as a pest of all four crops. All pest species were common and dominant (highest percent presence) in the study area. Furthermore, all pest species had wider niche breadth as compare to other species. Relation between pest species and their niche breadth is discussed. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.
Patel R.M.,Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology |
Gosavi K.V.C.,HPT Arts and RYK Science College
Rheedea | Year: 2016
Helianthemum lippii (L.) Dum.Cours. (Cistaceae), a species that has recently been collected from Kachchh district in Gujarat represents the first record of this species, genus and family for India. Detailed description, illustrations and photographs are provided here to facilitate identification.
PubMed | Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology and Sambalpur University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016
The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearsons correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.