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AlSalhi M.,King Saud University | Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Trinka V.,Thendrel Incorporated | Elangovan M.,Thendrel Incorporated | And 2 more authors.
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

This paper pertains to a new technique based on fluorescence emission spectra (FES), and stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood plasma, acetone extract of cellular fraction, and urine. These samples were collected from 60 cancer patients of different etiology and 60 age adjusted controls for a single blind study. A set of ratio parameters were obtained from the above spectra (FES and SSS of above three sets of samples), based on the relative intensity of biofluorophores like tryptophan, tyrosine, flavin etc. It was found that these biofluorophores go out of proportion for malignancy of any etiolology. The study was done in two phases: calibration and validation. Based on a certain set of ratios obtained by simple statistical analysis, in the calibration phase, the blinded samples of validation phase were spectrally analysed and classified as normal or malignant. The scoring done by independent oncologists (who were not involved in any part of this new technique) yielded an overall sensitivity of 87%, and specificity of 83%. The result indicate that new optical spectroscopic techniques could be a simple, non-invasive protocol for detection of cancers, particularly in symptomatic cases; or for monitoring the post treated cases of cancer. ©Adenine Press (2011).

Jana S.H.,Government Medical College | Jha B.M.,Government Medical College | Patel C.,Government Medical College | Jana D.,Calcutta National Medical College | Agarwal A.,Gujarat Cancer Research Institute
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in Indian women. Although breast cancer is an epithelial malignancy, stroma plays a key role in its development and pathogenesis. Stromal markers are now emerging as novel markers in assessing the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and have not been studied extensively till date. The aim of the present study is to study the stromal expression of CD10 in breast carcinoma, find its relationship with other prognostic markers and study the role stroma plays in breast cancer pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 cases of breast cancer were included in the study. Representative sections were taken and hematoxylin and eosin staining was done. Immunohistochemistry was performed with ER, PR, Her2neu and CD10. Stromal expression of CD10 (>10% stromal positivity was considered positive) in invasive breast carcinoma was noted and was statistically analyzed with different known prognostic markers of breast carcinoma. Results: Stromal expression of CD10 was found to be significantly associated with increasing tumor grade (P = 0.04), increasing mitotic rate (P = 0.33), worsening prognosis (P = 0.01), ER negativity (P = 0.0001), Her2neu positivity (P = 0.19) and with molecular subtypes (CD10 positivity with the HER2 type, and CD10 negativity with Luminal type). No correlation was found between CD10 overexpression and PR, age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node positivity and tumor stage. Conclusions: This study gives substantial proof to the various models/research papers explaining the role of stroma/CD10 in breast cancer pathogenesis. Keeping the role stroma plays in predicting prognosis and tumor response, CD10 should be included as a routine pre-chemotherapy marker in breast carcinoma. Further studies should be performed to see the role stroma plays in hormonal expression and the usefulness of CD10 to predict treatment failure in breast carcinomas receiving neoadjuvant therapy.

Pant N.K.,Government Medical College Haldwani | Pandey K.C.,Government Medical College Haldwani | Madabhavi I.,Gujarat Cancer Research Institute | Pandey V.,Government Medical College Haldwani | Revannasiddaiah S.,Government Medical College Haldwani
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Tobacco products continue to be used in large quantities in India despite the mandatory inclusion of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on all tobacco packaging. The circumstances as to how people could continue the use of tobacco to the point of developing head and neck cancer despite enhanced awareness about the ill effects of tobacco is the main focus of this study. Materials and Methods: This study concerned patients with least 5-years history of tobacco use, having been diagnosed with histopathologically proven malignancies of the hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx and oral cavity presenting at the Government Medical College-Haldwani, Nainital, India. A total of 183 patients were eligible for inclusion during July 1 2013- June 30 2014. Of these, 59 patients used smoked tobacco exclusively, 22 patients used smokeless tobacco exclusively, and 102 patients used both forms of tobacco. Among users of smoked forms, 75.2% (n=121) were beedi users, and 24.8% (n=40) were cigarette users. Patients were asked direct questions as to whether they had noticed the presence of PHWs upon tobacco products. The reasons as to why PHWs were not effective in stopping the patients from tobacco use were investigated. Results: Of the 183 patients, 146 reported being aware about the presence of PHWs, and when they were asked reasons as to why they continued tobacco despite being aware of ill-effects, the commonest reason chosen (by 53.4%) was that patients had not regarded themselves as using tobacco heavy enough to cause cancer. Among the 36 patients who reported as being oblivious to the presence of PHWs on tobacco products, 63.9% reported that the products they used never displayed any PHWs, and 36.1% reported never having paid attention to the packaging. The awareness about PHWs was higher among cigarette smokers in comparison to beedi smokers (100% vs 76.1%, p=0.0002). Conclusions: Locally produced and marketed tobacco products such as beedis and oral tobacco often fail to display PHWs. The presence of PHWs without doubt enhances awareness about the carcinogenic risks of tobacco. However, enhanced awareness alone may not be enough, and as elucidated by this study, some persons continue to use tobacco to the point of developing malignancies. The need of the hour is the implementation of legal and economic sanctions discouraging the use of tobacco products.

Parikh B.P.,Gujarat Cancer Research Institute
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2012

Localized gingival enlargement is often associated with systemic medications, abscess formation, trauma, or reactive lesions. Very few reports are available reporting enlargement of gingiva due to metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. A case of localized gingival growth affecting right maxillary and mandibular gingiva was reported in a 60-year-old male patient in which excisional biopsy of the lesion was done. Histopathological examination showed metastatic signet ring cell adenocarcinoma, which on further examination showed lower one-third of esophagus as the primary site of metastasis.

Sarkar M.,Indira Gandhi Medical College | Madabhavi I.,Gujarat Cancer Research Institute | Niranjan N.,Indira Gandhi Medical College | Dogra M.,Primary Health Center
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2015

Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

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