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Alnes L.W.H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Alnes L.W.H.,University of Oslo | Mestl H.E.S.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Berger J.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | And 8 more authors.
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Household air pollution (HAP) from use of solid fuels varies greatly depending on stove technology, fuel, housing characteristics, season, and geographical area. Accurate information about indoor air pollution concentration as well as personal exposure is vital for more precise estimates of the health burden from HAP. We measured indoor fine particles ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations for 48h in 179 homes in winter and 122 homes in summer in rural Guizhou, China. Furthermore, we measured personal CO exposure among 1796 women. The highest median [25th-75th percentiles] PM2.5 kitchen concentrations were found in winter in biomass homes with an open fire (557 [303-882] μg/m3) or a stove without chimney (533 [210-770] μg/m3), while homes with a chimney stove had lower median kitchen concentrations (337 [212-1114] μg/m3 and 371 [192-1208] μg/m3 for biomass and coal, respectively). There was large seasonal variability with lower concentrations in summer for both PM2.5 and CO. Indoor CO concentrations were more correlated with type of fuel than stove technology, with higher median winter concentrations in kitchens using biomass (2.4 [0.9-4.6] ppm) than coal (0.7 [0.6-1.5] ppm). Personal CO exposure was relatively low, with median 1.3 [0.9-2.1] ppm. Stove and fuel type, ventilation, kitchen configuration, occupation, secondhand tobacco smoke, time spent outdoors, and ambient temperature were all associated with personal CO exposure. We found that CO could not be used as a suitable proxy for PM2.5 in this setting due to large heterogeneity in stove and fuel use within homes. We also found only a weak correlation between personal and indoor measurements, highlighting the importance of doing personal measurements in epidemiological research. Most households exceeded the PM10 Chinese indoor air pollution standard of 150μg/m3. Hence, continued efforts are needed to mitigate health damaging levels of HAP. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang H.,Tsinghua University | Zhang H.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhu T.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,Tsinghua University | And 13 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014

Field campaigns were conducted to determine indoor emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and other air pollutants from household fuel burning in southwest China. “1-h peak” concentrations of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 14.0 ppm, 200, 220, and 260 µg/m3 for wood and 10.3 ppm, 80, 110, and 180 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. Daily average levels of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 5.7 ppm, 100, 110, and 160 µg/m3 for wood and 6.0 ppm, 50, 70, and 100 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. For wood and coal, particle size distribution show a prominent Aitken mode with peaks at around 40–80 nm. Emission factors of BC and OC were 0.57 and 2.69 g/kg for wood and 0.01 and 0.31 g/kg for coal, respectively. The total BC emissions from wood and coal (anthracite) burning in China were 63.3 Gg in 2000 and 81.6 Gg in 2005, respectively. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.

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