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Guo H.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Guo H.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhou J.-X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Cui M.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

Soil plays an important role in the global carbon balance, while soil carbon is sensitive to the change of land use. The paper addresses the scientific question that how will the land degradation and the decreasing of the quality of soil influence the soil carbon emissions, which was caused by the rocky desertification. We selected monitoring plots in the typical rocky desertification area of Huajiang Karst Gorge in Guanling County of Guizhou Province. We used the Li-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system to monitor the daily and seasonal variations of soil respiration from 2012 to 2013 in the fields via the monitored data analysis of the area and degrees of rocky desertification land of Guanling County before and after the rocky desertification management. The influence of rocky desertification management on soil carbon emissions was evaluated quantitatively. The research aimed to provide scientific basis for assessment of the influence of rocky desertification on soil carbon emissions. The research suggested that: 1) Soil respiration rate in rocky region had a very high concordance with the degree of rocky desertification, the higher the degree of rock desertification was, the lower the amount of soil respiration was, and the amount of soil carbon emissions of seriously significant rocky desertification land was half of that of non-rocky desertification land; 2) Soil respiration rate of non-rocky desertification land had obvious seasonal variations, while the soil respiration rate of rocky desertification land did not follow the rule of plant growth as the season went by, and the rule of soil respiration rate's seasonal variation was broken; 3) The regional soil carbon emissions was connected with the governance of rocky desertification, and that of Guanling County produced by soil respiration increased by 41800 t when the rocky desertification management was implemented from 2005 to 2010, which was equal to 31.92 t/km2 C increased in the karst region of this county.


Guo H.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Guo H.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Cui M.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhou J.-X.,Beijing Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Forest Research | Year: 2014

The paper takes karst valley region as study area to assess the influence of rocky desertification management on soil carbon pool for the first time. We selected the Huajiang karst gorge in Guanling County of Guizhou Province as the sampled field, which is a typical rocky desertification region, soil organic and inorganic carbon content of the soil samples from non-rocky desertification land and rocky desertification land were tested respectively, and carbon densities were calculated. The results showed that: (1) the average soil carbon storage of non-rocky desertification land is higher than that of rocky desertification land, and the average carbon storage in soil profiles of rocky desertification land has less relation with the degree of rocky desertification than with vegetation type and soil depth; (2)the average carbon density decreases as the seriousness of rocky desertification increases, none>potential>slight>moderate>serious>significantly serious; (3)soil quality was improve by the Rocky Desertification Comprehensive Management Project in the past years, according to the areas of non-rocky desertification land and rocky desertification changed in Guanling County, the total soil carbon storage increased by 724 t per square kilometer, in which, the value of organic carbon increased 513600 yuan per square kilometer. ©, 2014, Chinese Academy of Forestry. All right reserved.


Zhang X.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Zhu J.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Cui Y.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Huo D.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | And 7 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

The worst drought in 100 years in southwest China occurred in the winter-spring period in the year of 2009- 2010, causing forest fires as a secondary disaster. The effect of fire on the physicochemical properties of soil in a artificial secondary forest of Pinus massoniana in the center of Guizhou Province, China was investigated. The trees had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 5. 6 to 19. 4 cm, an average height of 4. 11 to 18. 60 m, and average density of 500 to 2400 clumps/ hm2, and were studied using a comparison of burnt and unburnt plots in a karst mountain area covered by a Quaternary clay. In the surface soil (depth determined by the influence of the fire) of the burnt plots, capillary porosity and total porosity increased, and the soil bulk density and non-capillary porosity decreased, becoming 104. 0, 102. 2, 96. 0 and 79. 9% of their previous values, respectively. The water content of the soil quality and soil volume, and the maximum and minimum values of the soil's water holding capacity were 92. 5, 86. 9, 110. 0, and 111. 4% respectively. Also, the relative amount of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium and the pH increased to 130. 8, 138. 0, 148. 7, 108. 3, and 101. 6% of their previous values, respectively, while the cation exchange capacity was reduced to 74. 2%. In contrast, the relative amount of hydrophilic dissolved organic nitrogen, effective phosphorus, available potassium and exchangeable bases were increased, being 185. 7, 301. 7, 201. 3 and 109. 7%, respectively. As a result of the forest fire, the organic matter carbonized, soil biota was reduced, the soil aggregates collapsed and the soil water stability was reduced with changes in the osmotic potential; hence, the texture was degraded in the surface soil. Because of the carbonization of the organic matter of the different litter layers of the burnt forest, a considerable amount of ash, small carbon particles and organic debris covered the surface soil, and infiltrated into the soil through the action of gravity and rain, and as a result the fertility of the surface soil increased. There were two changing trends for soil physicochemical properties: one of them was the influencing factors of the surface soil (IFS) which were much greater than those for the profile soil (IFP), and included variables such as soil bulk density, capillary porosity, total porosity, water contents of soil quality or soil volume, the maximum or minimum water holding capacities, the amount of soil organic matter, total phosphorus, total potassium, hydrophilic dissolved organic nitrogen, available potassium and pH value; the other was when soil properties representing IFS were less than the IFP, such as non-capillary porosity, the amount of total nitrogen, and effective phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases in the burnt amd non-burnt forest soil. Physicochemical indices of the burnt and non-burnt forest soil rose or fell in the soil profile, and trends simulated either the power or logarithmic curve well. The changes in the physicochemical indices between the burnt and unburnt forest in the surface soil reflected mainly the impact of the fire, and mirrored chiefly the difference of the natural soil properties and the effect of the biological community on the regolith. The coefficients for the relationships between the plant dead ratio of tree layer and the surface soil bulk density (R = -0. 8250*, r0. 05 = 0. 7545, the same was as follows), the maximum and minimum water holding capacity, (R = 0. 7615* and R = 0. 7689*, respectively), the amount of organic matter, (R = 0.9035**, r 0. 01 =0. 8745, the same was as follows) and total nitrogen (R =0. 7558*) were remarkable. The dependence coefficients of the plant dead ratio of shrub layer to the surface soil bulk density (R =0. 8547*), capillary porosity (R = -0. 7597*), total porosity (R =-0. 7629*), water content of soil quality (R =-0. 7593*), maximum and minimum water holding capacities (R =-0. 9573** and R = -0. 9124**, respectively), the amount of organic matter (R = -0. 9436**), total nitrogen (R =-0. 8335*), total phosphorus (R = -0. 7599*), and available potassium (R = -0. 7995*) were also notable. The correlation coefficients for the shrub biomass loss ratio to surface soil bulk density, amount of organic matter and available potassium were R = 0. 7684*, R = 0. 7763* and R = -0. 7600*, respectively. Coefficients for the litter biomass loss to the pH value of surface soil indicated a very strong relationship existed between these two variables (R = 0.7550*). In addition, the correlation coefficients for the average DBH of the burnt forest to the surface soil bulk density, capillary porosity, total porosity, water content of soil quality, maximum and minimum water holding capacities, amount of organic matter, were notable, being R =0. 8085*, R =-0. 8162*, R =-0. 8077* and R =-0. 9556**, R =-0. 9153** and R =-0. 9049** and R =-0. 8120*, respectively.


Zhang X.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Wang L.L.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Wang L.L.,Guizhou University | Liu Y.H.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | And 8 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Soil ecosystem function and plant diversity is receiving much attention in karst ecological studies. Changes and correlation laws in plant diversity indices and soil physical and chemical indicators of 41 karst forest plots were analyzed on different functional areas in the Maolan National Nature Reserve of southern Guizhou Province, China. This research adopted the combination method of wild field plot investigation and laboratory analysis. Results show:(1) The importance values of the arbor species clustering method resulted in five karst forest types:Koelreuteria minor-Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest, Lindera communis-Liquidambar formosana forest, Toona sinensis-Lindera communis forest, Cornus controversa-Cornus parviflora forest and Loropetalum chinense-Pinus massoniana forest. The arbor plant diversity indices, bare rock coverage, soil water storage indicators, soil fertility indicators and nutrient indicators showed a decreasing trend from the core area, to the buffer area, to the experimental area and to the outer area. The Margalef index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of the arbor and herb layer species showed a significant difference between some forest types. However, the diversity indices differences of the shrub layer were not significant. Significant differences of some indicators between the different forest types confirmed the influence of human disturbance to the karst forest in the natural recovery process. (2) Factor analysis revealed different correlation trends between the plant diversity factors of different layers, and the physical and chemical factors of different soil horizons. The analysis conformed to the general regularity of plant growth in the development of the arbor, shrub and herb layer and the co-evolution between the vegetation and soil system of karst forest in the natural recovery process. The number rate of significant factor-pairs of the soil physical and chemical indicators related to the arbor, shrub and herb plant diversity indices were 36.38%, 27.27% and 18.19%, respectively. The arbor plant diversity factor had the strongest relationship with the soil physical and chemical indicators. (3) The significant correlations between the arbor plant diversity indices and the soil physical and chemical indicators were divided into three types:i) Linear correlation is a general relationship between the plant diversity indices and soil physical and chemical indicators; 39.84% of the indicator-pairs were in this category, where the plant diversity indices increased to raise or lower the soil physical and chemical indicators accordingly. ii) Curve correlation is a complex relationship between the plant diversity indices and soil physical and chemical indicators; 46.10% of indicator-pairs are accounted for in this way. Inflection point values of the plant diversity indices without ecological meaning accounted for 11.72% where the relationship could be explained using straight lines or other models. The ecological inflection points of the plant diversity indices, which periodically impacted on soil physical and chemical indicators between the upwards and downwards trends of the quadratic curves, accounted for 17.19% of the indicator-pairs. The values of these plant diversity indices can be adjusted on the basis of the soil management goal in forest planting. iii) No significant correlation means the plant diversity indices are independent of the soil physical and chemical indicators, and planting measures for plant diversity indices cannot effectively change the soil physical and chemical indicators; 54.69% of indicator-pairs corresponded to this model. The different response modes aid the interpretation of ecosystem function through the plant diversity hypothesis. (4) Inflection points are the top values of the upwards and downwards trends in the quadratic curve response of arbor plant diversity indices to soil physical and chemical indicators. They are in index values of Margalef for 0.71-2.70 and 4.80-9.70, Simpson for 0.57-0.66 and 0.72-0.86, Pielou for 0.50-0.76 and 0.83-0.95 and Shannon-Wiener for 1.35-1.43 and 2.57-3.47, respectively. These values are used for one of the selection references of species and number proportions in artificial forestation. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Zhang X.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Chui Y.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Zhu J.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | Pan D.,Guizhou Provincial Academy of Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

The effects of fire on artificial secondary forests of Pinus massoniana with an average diameter at breast height (DBH) from 5. 5958 cm to 19. 3900 cm, average height from 4. 11 m to 18. 60 m, and average density from 500 clumps hm-2 to 2400 clumps hm-2, were investigated by comparison of burnt and non-burnt plots in a karst mountain area covered by Quaternary clay in central Guizhou province, China. The percentage damage to P. massoniana trees differed among plant organs and followed the order bark (95. 51%) > branches (71. 49%) > crown (62. 95%). The percentage plant death in different forest layers was highest in the herbaceous layer (100%), intermediate in the arbuscular layer (30.43%) and lowest in the arboreous layer (29. 09%). With increasing DBH of P. massoniana in the arboreous layer, the percentage damage to bark was unchanged, whereas damage to branches and the crown decreased, and the percentage death of plants also decreased. At P. massoniana DBH<5 cm, the percentage damage to bark, branches and the crown, percentage plant death and direct loss of biomass were all 100%, whereas at DBH≥25 cm the percentage damage to bark, branches and the crown were 85. 00%, 25. 00% and 15. 00%, respectively, and percentage plant death and direct loss of biomass were zero. In the arbuscular layer, either all individuals of a plant species died, such as P. massoniana, Betula alnoides and Camellia oleifera, all plants survived, such as Prunus serrulata, Myrsine africana and Rhamnus leptophylla, or only some plants died, such as Cunninghamia lanceolata, Castanea seguinii and Aralia chinensis. Plant species in theherbaceous layer either died or germinated after death of aboveground branches and leaves because of fire. In burnt forest, the potential biomass loss (68. 7755 t/ hm2) was higher than direct biomass loss (12. 1818 t/ hm2; percentage direct loss 22.41%). Direct biomass loss differed among the layers and followed the order arboreous layer (6. 9382 t/ hm2) > litter layer (3.3441 t/ hm2) > arbuscular layer (2. 4964 t/ hm2) > herbaceous layer (0. 8861 t/ hm2); in terms of the corresponding percentage direct biomass loss, the order was herbaceous layer (or litter layer, 100. 00%) > arbuscular layer (33. 36%) > arboreous layer (23. 59%). Decreases in the Patrick, Gleason, Simpson and Hurlbert indices followed the order herbaceous layer > arbuscular layer > arboreous layer, and reflected potential losses were higher than direct losses of plant diversity in the different layers of burnt forests. The range and average values of direct diversity loss in the arboreous layer indicated by the Patrick, Gleason, Simpson and Hurlbert indices were 0-1 and 0. 1429, 0-0. 1669 and 0. 0238, 0-1.0000 and 0. 1586, and -0. 1098-0 and -0. 0166, respectively; the corresponding range and average values of percentage direct biodiversity loss were 0-100 and 14. 29, 0-100 and 14. 29, 0. 66-100 and 17. 85, and -18. 61--3. 98 and -11. 29, respectively. The range and average values of direct loss of diversity in the arbuscular layer as measured by these indices were 0-5 and 1. 8571, 0-0. 6948 and 0. 4301, 0-0. 2987 and 0. 1115, and -0. 3477-0 and -0. 1241, respectively; the corresponding range and average values of percentage direct biodiversity loss were 0-42. 86 and 26. 76, 0-42. 85 and 26. 76, 0-86. 35 and 37. 63, and -52. 00-0 and -18. 53, respectively. The range and average values of direct diversity loss in the herbaceous layer indicated by these indices were 2-6 and 3. 8000, 1. 8205-5. 4614 and 3.4589, 0. 2593-0. 8313 and 0. 5300, and 0. 1728-0. 7619 and -0. 4863; the percentage direct loss was 100. 00% for all of the indices. The average burn height of the arboreous layer was negatively correlated to DBH, positively correlated to density and percentage damage to branches, the crown and entire plants, and uncorrelated with percentage damage to bark. The arboreous layer showed higher burn heights than those of the arbuscular layer, and their correlation was negative, and was negatively correlated to potential or direct loss of biomass and positively correlated to percentage direct loss of biomass. Burn height was positively correlated to direct loss or percentage direct loss of biomass, and negatively correlated to potential loss of biomass in the arbuscular layer. Direct loss or percentage direct loss of biomass with the Patrick and Gleason indices was not obviously correlated to burn height in the arboreous layer and was positively correlated to burn height in the arbuscular layer. Burn height was positively correlated to direct loss, and negatively correlated to percentage direct loss, of biomass with the Simpson index in the arboreous layer, and positively correlated to direct loss and percentage direct loss of biomass with the Simpson index in the arbuscular layer. No obvious correlation between burn height of the arboreous or arbuscular layer and direct loss or percentage direct loss of biomass with the Hurlbert index was detected.

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