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Aunan K.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Aunan K.,University of Oslo | Alnes L.W.H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Alnes L.W.H.,University of Oslo | And 7 more authors.
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

Exposure to fine particles ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves is recognized as a major contributor to global ill health. Still there are few attempts to estimate the economic costs and health benefits of interventions to reduce exposure. The objective of this paper is to estimate costs and health benefits to women of possible interventions to replace current biomass stoves in Guizhou Province, southwest China, with cleaner burning stoves. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was measured in women ≥30y living in households using biomass as fuel. In a sub-sample of households indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured. Reduced exposure from replacing stoves in individual homes and at the community level was estimated using information about stoves, concentration levels, and time-activity patterns. Annual avoided new cases of COPD were estimated. The economic value of avoided cases was compared to intervention costs. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis was performed using Monte-Carlo simulation and the impact of uncertainty in single parameters was explored. The mean reduction in annual average PM2.5 exposure is estimated at 127-294μg/m3, which corresponds to a 41-77% reduction. Annually 0.6-3.2 new cases of COPD among women may be avoided per 1000 households. The present value net benefit is 1766-22,500 Yuan (Yuan/USD≈0.16) per household and mean benefit/cost-ratios (B/C) are 3.3-14.7. We conclude that policy interventions to increase access to cleaner burning stoves may bring large net benefits to rural women and their families, and to society. © 2013 The Authors.


Li Y.-F.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Dong Z.,Guizhou Institute of Environmental Science and Designing | Chen C.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Li B.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Due to a long history of extensive mercury mining and smelting activities, local residents in Wanshan, China, are suffering from elevated mercury exposure. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of oral supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast in these long-term mercury-exposed populations. One hundred and three volunteers from Wanshan area were recruited and 53 of them were supplemented with 100 μg of organic selenium daily as selenium-enriched yeast while 50 of them were supplemented with the nonselenium-enriched yeast for 3 months. The effects of selenium supplementation on urinary mercury, selenium, and oxidative stress-related biomarkers including malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were assessed. This 3-month selenium supplementation trial indicated that organic selenium supplementation could increase mercury excretion and decrease urinary malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in local residents. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Hu L.,University of South China | Hu L.,CAS Institute of Physics | Dong Z.-Q.,Guizhou Institute of Environmental Science and Designing | Huang X.-H.,University of South China | And 8 more authors.
Fenxi Huaxue/ Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

A hyphenated technique was optimized to simultaneously determine different selenium species, including Se(IV), Se(VI), selenocysteine (SeCys), and selenomethionine (SeMet), by anion exchange chromatography (AEC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ammonium citrate and methanol were used as mobile phase. Mobile phase A is composed of 0.5 mM ammonium citrate + 2% (V/V) methanol, and mobile phase B is 100 mM ammonium citrate + 2% (V/V) methanol. When 93% A + 7% B were used, the four Se species can be separated in 7.5 min. The detection limits for SeCys, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.34, 0.67, 1.38 and 0.63 μg L-1, respectively, according to three times standard deviation of the blank criterion. The recoveries of spiked Se(IV) in serum samples were between 93% and 107%, and the RSDs were less than 9% (n = 3). This method was applied to analyze serum samples from long-term mercury-exposed people supplemented with selenium-enriched yeast. The concentrations of total Se and Se(IV) in serum samples were found to be increased after Se supplementation. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, repeatable, and suitable for speciation analysis of small molecular weight seleno-compounds in different biological samples. Copyright © 2011.


Ge H.,Guizhou Normal University | Yi Y.,Guizhou Normal University | Yang X.,Guizhou Institute of Environmental Science and Designing | Yang L.,Guizhou Normal University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment | Year: 2010

This article proposes eco-protective countermeasures that may serve as theoretical reference for post-mining eco-rehabilitation of the Xiangshui coal mining area, Guizhou, China. These countermeasures were developed from baseline survey and assessment data for the eco-environment including plant communities, soil types, physical and chemical properties, water and soil loss, status quo, etc. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Li Y.-F.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Zhao J.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Li Y.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Li H.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | And 7 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2015

Aims: The consumption of rice grain produced in mercury (Hg) contaminated soil was identified as a major route of dietary Hg exposure. The aims were 1) to determine the most suitable concentration of Se that can lead to least Hg accumulation in rice grain in real Hg contaminated paddy field in Qingzhen, and 2) to elucidate the possible mechanism of the protection against the phytotoxicity of Hg in rice by Se. Methods: Rice plants were treated with different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) of sodium selenite in a real paddy field in Qingzhen, Guizhou, China. The concentrations of Hg and Se in soil, stream water, rice tissues, and the seed setting rate (SSR) and thousand seed weight (TSW) were checked. The distribution and chemical forms of Hg and Se in rice root were studied by XRF and XAS. Results: Treating the rice plants with 0.5 μg/mL of sodium selenite achieved the lowest Hg accumulation in rice grain while the highest SSR and TSW. In rice root, XRF found decreased Hg uptake, and XAS found Hg-Se complexes were formed. These findings, together with the formation of biological barriers like iron plaque, could explain the decreased accumulation of Hg in rice grain at Se levels below 0.5 μg/mL. Se concentrations over 0.5 μg/mL led to increased Hg accumulation and decreased SSR and TSW, which were ascribed to the significantly increased Se accumulation in rice grain. Conclusions: This field study suggest that treatment with appropriate level of Se (0.5 μg/mL in this study) is an efficient way to reduce Hg accumulation in rice and increase rice yield and quality, thereafter to protect the health of the rice-dependent populations in Hg-contaminated area. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Wang X.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Wang X.,Sichuan Normal University | Li Y.-F.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Li B.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | And 6 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

Potentially harmful element contamination from mining and smelting raises concerns due to possible health risks. For most people, diet is the main route of exposure to potentially harmful elements, so determination of the concentrations of these elements in foodstuffs and assessment of their possible risk for humans via dietary intake is very important. This study was designed to investigate the concentrations of different elements, including Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se in foodstuffs and to estimate the potential health risk of these elements via consumption of polluted foodstuffs in the Wanshan Hg mine area, Guizhou province, SW China. The multielemental concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to evaluate the potential health risk from individual and combined potentially harmful elements due to dietary intake. The average contents of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se in the most frequently consumed foodstuffs were: 31, 248, 121, 1035 and 32. μg/kg respectively. Among them, Cd and Hg were the most important contributors to potentially harmful elements contamination in Wanshan. Eight of 10 kinds of vegetables were contaminated to various levels by different elements but the samples of rice, pork, radish and potato were below the stipulated limits for toxic elements. In this study, the average dietary intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, Se by an adult man of 60. kg living in Wanshan were: 27, 167, 86, 1061, 42. μg/day, respectively. The HIs for multielement dietary intake was 3.11, with the relative contributions of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se being 22.3%, 24.3%, 45.0%, 3.9% and 4.4%, respectively, which indicated that consumption of food poses a potential health risk. Vegetables were found to be the main source of potentially harmful element dietary intake. © 2010.


Cui H.,Northeast Petroleum University | Cui H.,Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention | Chen D.,Guizhou Institute of Environmental Science And Designing | Gao M.,Northeast Petroleum University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The large amount of waste lye was generated during hydrothermal synthetic zeolite fromcoal fly ash by microwave-assisted heating. The environment will be polluted, if the improperhanding of waste lye, and discharged into the surface water. The washing process of the syntheticzeolite was studied in this paper. Rational recycling of waste lye and reduce the amount of itemissions in the washing process were found. By comparing the environmental effects and thetechnical and economic, the method of washing with water-acid-water was determined to be the bestsolution of the zeolite washed. The waste lye can be recovered in this method, and it will be used forpreparation of lye in the next synthetic zeolite. Cost was saved, and emissions of waste lye wasreduced, too. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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