Zhang H.-B.,Guizhou University |
Su H.-J.,Guizhou University |
Liu W.,Caohai National Nature Reserve |
Zhang M.-M.,Guizhou University |
Li Z.-M.,Guizhou Institute of Biology
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment | Year: 2014
The information on waterfowl community structure and habitat utilization is critical for protection and management of the wetland waterfowl. Field surveys on winter waterfowl in the Caohai Nature Reserve were conducted during December 2011 to February 2012. Results show that 30 species of waterfowl were recorded, belonging to 17 genera and 10 families of 6 orders, and dominatd with Plaeonaretic species and Holarctic species in fauna. Waterfowl of the Anseriformes are the dominant group both in species and population, consisting of five species, i.e. Fulica atra, Anas penelope, Anser indicus, Tadorna ferruginea, and Anas strepera, all beyond 10% in dominancy. However, some rare species like Grus nigricollis and Grus grus also have a certain size of population. Apparent differences were observed between five habitats typical of Caohai in species composition and population of waterfowl inhabiting therein (Kruskal-Wallis H Test: χ2=16.1893, P =0.003). The shallow water zones are the richest among the 5 typical habitats in species diversity of waterfowl and also the highest in Shannon-Wiener diversity index(H' = 1.079) and evenness index (J' = 0.804), whereas, the cultivated land is the lowest in all the three indices (H' =0.345; J' =0.493). Clustering analysis of waterfowl communities shows that the waterfowls in Caohai could be sorted into seven concomitant communities, which varied in distribution with habitat. Therefore, more efforts should be made accordingly on protection and management of the shallow water zone and cultivated land to promote conservation of waterfowl diversity and benign cycling of the wetland ecosystem in Caohai. © 2014, China Environmental Science Press. All rights reserved.
Zhou Y.-J.,Guizhou Institute of Analysis and Testing |
Xu Q.,Guizhou Institute of Biology |
Zhao H.-X.,Guiyang Medical University |
Gao G.-L.,Guizhou Academy of science
Shanghai Jiaotong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University | Year: 2014
Chitosan and its derivatives are unique cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetyl-glucosamine. They have drawn much attention in various fields, including pharmaceutical, biomedicine, water treatment, cosmetics, agriculture, and food industry, due to their useful characteristics such as biorenewabilty, biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioadhesivity and nontoxicity. This paper introduced the synthetic method of different molecular weight, different degree of deacetylation and O-modified chitosan. Moreover, it revewed the recent free radical scavenging activities of chitosan and its derivatives and discussed in brief the roles molecular weight, degree of deacetylation and O-modification played in free radical scavenging. ©, 2014, Shanghai Jiaotong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University. All right reserved.
Zeng Q.P.,Southwest University |
He B.H.,Southwest University |
Mao Q.Z.,Southwest University |
Qin H.J.,Guizhou Institute of Biology |
And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016
Disagreements over the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil respiration still exist, thereby necessitating further studies. In the present study, we designed an experiment to explore the seasonal responses of soil respiration to various levels of nitrogen deposition (T0; 0 g N m-2 a-1as the control; T5; 5 g N m-2 a-1 as the low N treatment; Tl0: 10 g N m-2 a-1 as the moderate nitrogen treatment; and Tl5: 15 g N m-2 a-1as the high nitrogen treatment. All treatments were performed with nine replicates both in the Masson pine forest and in the Citrus plantation at Mt. Jinyun, Chongqing, China. The different levels of N addition were applied four times at the beginning of each season from May 2014. We measured soil respiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture simultaneously by using the Automated Soil CO2 Exchange Station (ACE, UK) for four consecutive days in July, September, November, January, February, March, May, and June, respectively, at four times each day between 8: 00 and 6: 00. The results showed that: (1) the two forests underwent similar seasonal changes in soil respiration, with the most change being observed during the summer, followed by spring, autumn, and winter, which yielded the least change. However, the citrus plantation presented significantly higher levels of soil respiration than the Masson pine forest across all seasons (P < 0.05). (2) Generally, nitrogen deposition suppressed soil respiration in both forests and these inhibitory effects were strengthened with increasing levels of nitrogen deposition. The only exception in which nitrogen deposition enhanced soil respiration was in the Masson pine forest during the winter, while soil moisture was very low. (3) Soil respiration showed significantly positive exponential relationships with soil temperature (P < 0.01) and significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture (P < 0. 05). Both factors (soil temperature and moisture) are influenced by the levels of nitrogen deposition in subtropical forests. Thus, the results of our study on subtropical forests confirm the theory that nitrogen deposition inhibits soil respiration. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.
Wang J.-J.,Hainan Normal University |
Wang J.-J.,Guizhou Institute of Biology |
Yu Z.-G.,Guizhou Institute of Biology |
Li Z.-M.,Guizhou Institute of Biology |
And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014
Nest predation is the primary cause of nest failure and leads to low or zero breeding success for most birds. From May to July, 2012, infrared cameras were used to identify predators of ground nests of birds in Kuankuoshui Nature Reserve, Guizhou, southwestern China. A total of 7 predation events were recorded for 15 natural ground nests, including 2 (28. 6%) by Siberian Weasel (Mustela sibirica), 1 (14. 3%) by Red-billed Blue Magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha), Magpie (Pica pica), Civet Cat (Paguma larvata), Edward's Rat (Rattus edwardsi) and King Rat Snake (Elaphe carinata), respectively. Totally, 17 predation events were recorded for 22 artificial ground nests, including 11 (64. 7%) predated by Civet Cat, 5 (29. 4%) by Edward's Rat and 1 (5. 9%) by Red-billed Blue Magpie. Mammals were responsible for 83.3% of total predation events, and thought to be the main predators of ground nests of birds. Time of predation varied with different types of predators, i. e. mammal predation occurred mainly at night, while both predation events by birds and snakes were exclusively diurnal.