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Li J.,Beijing Normal University | Li J.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Li J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution | Yang Y.,Beijing Normal University | And 17 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. © 2015. Source

Chen F.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Chen F.,Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing | Ying G.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Ma Y.-B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900. days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83. days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zhang S.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zhang S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang S.,Southern Methodist University | Song J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 14 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). © 2016. Source

Chen F.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Chen F.,Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing | Ying G.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Ma Y.-B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015

The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS. © 2014 SETAC. Source

Song Y.-L.,Chinese Academy of science | Song Y.-L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zeng Y.,Chinese Academy of science | Yang H.-Q.,Chinese Academy of science | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

A total of 19 surface sediments and 5 sediment cores were collected at typical sites in Lake Caohai, located in Guizhou Province. The spatiotemporal distribution and sources of seven heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cd, Co, Pb, Zn and Sb) in the sediments were investigated, and the potential ecological risks of those heavy metals were assessed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Sb in the surface sediments were relatively higher in the north, central and southwest areas of the lake; these pollutants mainly resulted from the mineral exploitation in the catchment. The concentrations of Cr, Ni and Co were relatively higher in the most west area, mainly due to urban sewage discharge (westernmost areas). Based on the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), Cd and Sb were obviously enriched in the sediments of Lake Caohai. The potential ecological risk of Cd was higher in the lake sediments, especially in the sediments from the central part of the lake. The profiles of the variations of heavy metals contents in the sediment cores corresponded well to the history of the mineral exploitation in the catchment of Lake Caohai. Although the mineral exploitation was ended, its remaining problems are still the main cause of heavy metal pollution in Caohai Lake. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt reasonable methods to strictly control the heavy metal pollution and to establish suitable measures to effectively treat the heavy metal pollution, recovering the ecological environment of Lake Caohai. © 2016, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved. Source

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