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Cheng L.,Nanjing Normal University | Du Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Hu J.,Nanjing Normal University | Jiao D.,Nanjing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Ubiquitin, a small protein consisting of 76 amino acids, acts in protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and receptor control through endocytosis. Using proteomics, we compared the differentially ubiquitinated proteins between a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain and a deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) strain in third-instar larvae of the diamondback moth. We used polyubiquitin affinity beads to enrich ubiquitinated proteins and then performed one-dimensional SDS-PAGE separation and mass spectrometric identification. In the DR strain, We found 17 proteins that were upregulated (relative to the DS strain), including carbonic anhydrase family members, ADP ribosylation factor 102F CG11027-PA, protein kinase 61C, phospholipase A2, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and heat shock proteins, and five proteins that were downregulated in the DS strain, including carboxylesterase and DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase. These results were also verified by qPCR. The differentially ubiquitinated proteins/enzymes were mainly responsible for protein binding, catalytic activity, and molecular transducer activity. These results improve our understanding of the relationship between protein ubiquitination and the deltamethrin stress response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hu J.,Nanjing Normal University | Xu Q.,Nanjing Normal University | Chi Q.,Nanjing Normal University | Liu W.,Nanjing Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Differential expression of the proteasome alpha6 (prosalpha6) was previously reported between Plutella xylostella strains that are resistant or susceptible to the pesticide deltamethrin (DM). This finding indicated that the prosalpha6 may be involved in DM resistance. In this article, qPCR analysis revealed that the prosalpha6 was also significantly upregulated in Drosophila Kc cells treated with DM. To better understand the contribution of prosalpha6 in DM resistance, RNA interference, heterologous expression, and a proteasome inhibitor (MG-132) were used. MG-132 was used to suppress proteasomal activity, and the dsRNA was designed to block the function of prosalpha6. The results indicated that both MG-132 and prosalpha6 knockdown decreased the cellular viability following DM treatment. Prosalpha6 was cloned and transfected into Drosophila Kc cells. The result showed that overexpression of prosalpha6 in Drosophila Kc cells conferred some protection against DM. Taken together, our results indicate that prosalpha6 is involved in Drosophila cells DM resistance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu G.-S.,Guizhou Institute of Modern Chinese Medical Materials | Guo Q.-S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang C.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Z.-Y.,Guizhou Academy of Agriculture Science
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi

Measuring the content of soluble reducing sugar, total sugar, soluble protein, guanosine, alkaloids, and succinic acid of Pinellia ternata tuber were measured by anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetric method, Coomassie brilliant blue method, RP-HPLC, reverse potentiometric titration, acid dye colorimetry, respectively. The result showed that yellow light could promote the growth and development of P. ternata and increase the content of soluble reducing sugar, total sugar, alkaloids, and succinic acid. Under blue light could promote the content of soluble protein and guanosine. Red and yellow light increased the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, contrastively blue light reduced the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. White film through the most uniform spectrum was most conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll a. As single film, blue film, yellow film were more conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll a, green film and red film had been relatively beneficial to the synthesis of chlorophyll b. Bulbil formed the largest number and the biggest propagation coefficient of P. ternata under red light showed that it could increase the production of P. ternata under red light. Source

Guo S.,Cornell University | Guo S.,South China Agricultural University | Yan W.,Cornell University | McDonough S.P.,Cornell University | And 11 more authors.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in the developed world. Two potent cytotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the virulence factors of this disease and can be a good vaccine candidate against CDI. In the present study, we genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis to express the nontoxic, recombinant fragments derived from TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domains (Tcd-AC and Tcd-BC) as an oral vaccine candidate. The immunogenicity of the genetically engineered L. lactis oral vaccine delivery system (animal groups LAC and LBC or the combination of both, LACBC) was compared with the recombinant TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domain proteins (animal groups PAC and PBC or the combination of both, PACBC), which were expressed and purified from E. coli. After the C. difficile challenge, the control groups received PBS or engineered L. lactis with empty vector, showed severe diarrhea symptoms and died within 2-3 days. However, both the oral vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases and histopathologic lesions than the control sham-vaccine groups (p<. 0.05) except group LBC which only had a 31% survival rate after the challenge. The data of post infection survival showed that an average of 86% of animals survived in groups PAC and PACBC, 75% of animals survived in group LACBC, and 65% of animals survived in group LAC. All of the vaccinated animals produced higher titers of both IgG and IgA than the control groups (p<. 0.05), and the antibodies were able to neutralize the cytopathic effect of toxins in vitro. The results of this study indicate that there is a potential to use L. lactis as a delivery system to develop a cost effective oral vaccine against CDI. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ye C.,Cornell University | Ye C.,Chongqing University of Technology | Ye C.,Chongqing Medical University | Yan W.,Cornell University | And 14 more authors.

Animal leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the United States and around the world. In a previous study, we applied four recombinant antigens, rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 of Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans) for the serological diagnosis of equine leptospirosis (Ye et al, Serodiagnosis of equine leptospirosis by ELISA using four recombinant protein markers, Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 21:478-483). In this study, the same four recombinant antigens were evaluated for their potential to diagnose canine leptospirosis by ELISA. A total of 305 canine sera that were Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (n=102) and MAT-positive (n=203) to 5 serovars (Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola and Hardjo) were tested. When individual recombinant antigens were used, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8; 89.7% and 81.4% for rLoa22; 92.6% and 84.3% for rLipL32 and 99.5% and 84.3% for rLipL21, respectively compared to the MAT. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL32, 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL21, 89.7% and 87.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLoa22, 89.7% and 87.3% to rLipL21 and rLoa22, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLipL21 and rLipL32 and 89.2% and 94.1% for rLoa22 and rLipL32 when one of the two antigens was test positive. The use of all four antigens in the ELISA assay was found to be sensitive and specific, easy to perform, and agreed with the results of the standard Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination test (MAT) for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. © 2014 Ye et al. Source

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