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Zhou Y.,Nanchang University | Ruan Z.,Nanchang University | Yin F.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Shu G.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

Artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) with uniform design (UD) were used to optimize the decoloration and lactosucrose (LS) recovery in solution with granular charcoal. Three input variables (dosage of charcoal, time, and temperature) were chosen in constructing the back propagation neural networks (BPNN) model, and decoloration rate and LS recovery rate as output variables. GA was used to optimize the input space of the ANN model to find out the Pareto-optimal set. The best parameters were the dosage of charcoal varying from 2.1894 to 2.1897%, time from 64.05 to 64.06 min, and temperature from 74.22 to 78.90°C. The optimal predicted decoloration rate is 96.30% and LS recovery rate is 97.35%. Results from confirmative studies showed that decoloration rate was 94.85% and LS recovery rate was 97.23%, and the relative error of network predicted values and actual measured values were 1.51% and 0.12%, respectively. The results suggested that the UD-ANN-GA could effectively solve the separation efficiency by column chromatography and the method was reliable.

Mossoba M.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Tyburczy C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Kramer J.K.G.,Guelph Food Research Center | And 3 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2013

Declarations of the total content of trans fatty acids (FA) and saturated FA (SFA) are mandatory on food labels in the US and Canada. Gas chromatography (GC) has been the method of choice for the determination of FA composition. However, GC is time consuming and requires conversion of fats and oils to their FA methyl esters. In the present study, a recently published Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure was applied to the rapid (<5 min) determination of total SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and trans FA contents of 30 commercially available edible fats and oils. Good agreement was obtained between the GC and FT-NIR methods for the determination of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents. Differences between the two methods were apparent for the determination of trans fat at trans fat levels <2 % of total fat. The analytical determinations of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents for many of the oils examined differed from the respective values declared on the product labels. Our findings demonstrate that the FT-NIR procedure serves as a suitable alternative method for the rapid determination of total SFA, MUFA, PUFA and trans FA contents of neat vegetable oils. © 2013 AOCS (outside the USA).

Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aldai N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kramer J.K.G.,Guelph Food Research Center | Gibb D.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

In western Canada, ethanol is produced mainly from wheat. As the demand for wheat increases, so do grain prices, which in turn creates incentives for feeding reduced-cost distillers coproducts to livestock. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) for barley grain may also create opportunities for enhancing beef fatty acid profiles because reducing starch concomitantly increases dietary fiber and oil and may shift PUFA biohydrogenation toward a healthier trans and CLA profile. To study this potential, heifers were fed diets containing either 0, 20, 40, or 60% wheat DDGS (DM basis) substituted for rolled barley (n = 24; 133-d finishing period). Adding DDGS increased dietary oil (from 1.9 to 3.7%), but dietary fatty acid compositions remained consistent. Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS linearly decreased total diaphragm fatty acids on a milligrams per gram basis (P = 0.031). For both brisket fat and diaphragm, feeding increasing amounts of DDGS caused linear increases in percent- ages of 18:2n-6 (P = 0.001) and total n-6 fatty acids (P = 0.001) but did not change the concentrations of individual or total n-3 fatty acids. Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS did not change the content of total trans MUFA in either brisket fat or diaphragm but led to linear decreases in 10t-18:1 (P = 0.033, brisket fat; P = 0.004, diaphragm) and increases in 11t-18:1 (P = 0.005, brisket fat; P = 0.003, diaphragm). Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS also caused a linear increase in 9c11t-18:2 (P = 0.044, brisket fat; P = 0.023, diaphragm) and total CLA (P = 0.086, brisket fat; P = 0.039, diaphragm). Overall, feeding DDGS enhanced the fatty acid composition of beef by decreasing 10t-18:1 while increasing the major CLA isomer (9c,11t-18:2) and its precursor 11t-18:1. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Kasran M.,University of Guelph | Cui S.W.,Guelph Food Research Center | Goff H.D.,University of Guelph
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Soy whey protein isolate (SWPI)-fenugreek gum (hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed) conjugates were prepared by Maillard-type reaction in a controlled dry state condition (60 °C, 75% relative humidity for 3 days) to improve emulsification properties. Fenugreek gum was partially hydrolyzed using 0.05 M HCl at 90 °C for 10 min (HD10), 30 min (HD30) and 50 min (HD50) to examine if molecular weight had an effect on the emulsifying properties. The formation of SWPI-fenugreek gum conjugates was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Measurements of particle size distribution and average particle size have shown that conjugation of SWPI-fenugreek gum at 60 °C for 3 days was enough to produce relatively small droplet sizes in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. A ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 of SWPI:fenugreek gum was more effective in stabilizing emulsion compared to 1:1 ratio. Unhydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties compared to partially hydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates. The order of the conjugates in lowering the particle size of emulsions was as follows: SWPI-unhydrolzed fenugreek gum > SWPI-HD10 > SWPI-HD30 > SWPI-HD50. © 2012.

Wu Y.,Tennessee State University | Eskin N.A.M.,University of Manitoba | Cui W.,Guelph Food Research Center | Pokharel B.,Tennessee State University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

The emulsifying properties of water soluble yellow mustard mucilage (WSM) were compared with two commercial emulsifiers-gum Arabic and citrus pectin. Of the three polysaccharides examined, WSM exhibited excellent emulsion stability under various conditions applied in this study. The emulsion stability test showed that 1% and 2% WSM emulsions exhibited no phase separation after 21 days of storage at 25°C. WSM also exhibited the highest surface activity among the three materials. The surface activity of 1% WSM is equivalent to that of a 15% gum Arabic solution. When exposed to heat at 90°C for 20min, WSM emulsion showed little change in droplet size, which was superior to both the gum Arabic and pectin emulsions, whose droplet size increased significantly following heat treatment. WSM emulsion also had a significantly larger magnitude of zeta-potential than the other two polysaccharides. Under different pH conditions, droplet size varied greatly among the three materials. WSM emulsions exhibited significantly smaller droplet size at pH 4.0 followed by pH 9.0 and 6.5. Pectin emulsions and gum Arabic emulsions were not sensitive to the pH range examined in this study. WSM also showed the best freeze-thaw stability among the three polysaccharides. After three freeze-thaw cycles, the 0.5% WSM emulsion exhibited a higher cream index than 2% gum Arabic emulsion or the 1% pectin emulsion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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