Guelph Food Research Center

Ontario, Canada

Guelph Food Research Center

Ontario, Canada

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Rivas-Arreola M.J.,Durango Institute of Technology | Rocha-Guzman N.E.,Durango Institute of Technology | Gallegos-Infante J.A.,Durango Institute of Technology | Gonzalez-Laredo R.F.,Durango Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity and cardioprotective potential of leaves infusions and partially purified fractions of Quercus sideroxyla and Q. eduardii (red oaks) and Q. resinosa (white oak). Consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages derived from plants, such as oak may represent a beneficial diet in terms of cardiovascular protection. Infusions from Oak leaves were obtained and probed for total phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging by DPPH test and Deoxy-D-ribose method, the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by FRAP and ORAC tests, inhibitions of Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity were measured. A HPLC analysis was performed by HPLC-MS. Bioactive polyphenols such as gallic and ellagic acids, catechin, quercetin and derivatives: naringenin and naringin were detected in Quercus infusions. A distinctive HPLC profile was observed among the red and white oak samples. Q. resinosa infusions have exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in comparison with the other species, although in the inhibition of LDL oxidation no differences were observed. In the inhibition of the ACE, Q. resinosa was more effective (IC50, 18 ppm) than Q. sideroxyla, showing same effect as the control Captopril. From the results it is possible to postulate that not only chelating activity is important in these infusions, especially in Q. resinosa, © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Kasran M.,University of Guelph | Cui S.W.,Guelph Food Research Center | Goff H.D.,University of Guelph
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Soy whey protein isolate (SWPI)-fenugreek gum (hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed) conjugates were prepared by Maillard-type reaction in a controlled dry state condition (60 °C, 75% relative humidity for 3 days) to improve emulsification properties. Fenugreek gum was partially hydrolyzed using 0.05 M HCl at 90 °C for 10 min (HD10), 30 min (HD30) and 50 min (HD50) to examine if molecular weight had an effect on the emulsifying properties. The formation of SWPI-fenugreek gum conjugates was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Measurements of particle size distribution and average particle size have shown that conjugation of SWPI-fenugreek gum at 60 °C for 3 days was enough to produce relatively small droplet sizes in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. A ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 of SWPI:fenugreek gum was more effective in stabilizing emulsion compared to 1:1 ratio. Unhydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties compared to partially hydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates. The order of the conjugates in lowering the particle size of emulsions was as follows: SWPI-unhydrolzed fenugreek gum > SWPI-HD10 > SWPI-HD30 > SWPI-HD50. © 2012.


Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aldai N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kramer J.K.G.,Guelph Food Research Center | Gibb D.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

In western Canada, ethanol is produced mainly from wheat. As the demand for wheat increases, so do grain prices, which in turn creates incentives for feeding reduced-cost distillers coproducts to livestock. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) for barley grain may also create opportunities for enhancing beef fatty acid profiles because reducing starch concomitantly increases dietary fiber and oil and may shift PUFA biohydrogenation toward a healthier trans and CLA profile. To study this potential, heifers were fed diets containing either 0, 20, 40, or 60% wheat DDGS (DM basis) substituted for rolled barley (n = 24; 133-d finishing period). Adding DDGS increased dietary oil (from 1.9 to 3.7%), but dietary fatty acid compositions remained consistent. Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS linearly decreased total diaphragm fatty acids on a milligrams per gram basis (P = 0.031). For both brisket fat and diaphragm, feeding increasing amounts of DDGS caused linear increases in percent- ages of 18:2n-6 (P = 0.001) and total n-6 fatty acids (P = 0.001) but did not change the concentrations of individual or total n-3 fatty acids. Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS did not change the content of total trans MUFA in either brisket fat or diaphragm but led to linear decreases in 10t-18:1 (P = 0.033, brisket fat; P = 0.004, diaphragm) and increases in 11t-18:1 (P = 0.005, brisket fat; P = 0.003, diaphragm). Feeding increasing amounts of DDGS also caused a linear increase in 9c11t-18:2 (P = 0.044, brisket fat; P = 0.023, diaphragm) and total CLA (P = 0.086, brisket fat; P = 0.039, diaphragm). Overall, feeding DDGS enhanced the fatty acid composition of beef by decreasing 10t-18:1 while increasing the major CLA isomer (9c,11t-18:2) and its precursor 11t-18:1. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Zhou Y.,Nanchang University | Ruan Z.,Nanchang University | Yin F.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Shu G.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

Artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) with uniform design (UD) were used to optimize the decoloration and lactosucrose (LS) recovery in solution with granular charcoal. Three input variables (dosage of charcoal, time, and temperature) were chosen in constructing the back propagation neural networks (BPNN) model, and decoloration rate and LS recovery rate as output variables. GA was used to optimize the input space of the ANN model to find out the Pareto-optimal set. The best parameters were the dosage of charcoal varying from 2.1894 to 2.1897%, time from 64.05 to 64.06 min, and temperature from 74.22 to 78.90°C. The optimal predicted decoloration rate is 96.30% and LS recovery rate is 97.35%. Results from confirmative studies showed that decoloration rate was 94.85% and LS recovery rate was 97.23%, and the relative error of network predicted values and actual measured values were 1.51% and 0.12%, respectively. The results suggested that the UD-ANN-GA could effectively solve the separation efficiency by column chromatography and the method was reliable.


Wu Y.,Tennessee State University | Eskin N.A.M.,University of Manitoba | Cui W.,Guelph Food Research Center | Pokharel B.,Tennessee State University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

The emulsifying properties of water soluble yellow mustard mucilage (WSM) were compared with two commercial emulsifiers-gum Arabic and citrus pectin. Of the three polysaccharides examined, WSM exhibited excellent emulsion stability under various conditions applied in this study. The emulsion stability test showed that 1% and 2% WSM emulsions exhibited no phase separation after 21 days of storage at 25°C. WSM also exhibited the highest surface activity among the three materials. The surface activity of 1% WSM is equivalent to that of a 15% gum Arabic solution. When exposed to heat at 90°C for 20min, WSM emulsion showed little change in droplet size, which was superior to both the gum Arabic and pectin emulsions, whose droplet size increased significantly following heat treatment. WSM emulsion also had a significantly larger magnitude of zeta-potential than the other two polysaccharides. Under different pH conditions, droplet size varied greatly among the three materials. WSM emulsions exhibited significantly smaller droplet size at pH 4.0 followed by pH 9.0 and 6.5. Pectin emulsions and gum Arabic emulsions were not sensitive to the pH range examined in this study. WSM also showed the best freeze-thaw stability among the three polysaccharides. After three freeze-thaw cycles, the 0.5% WSM emulsion exhibited a higher cream index than 2% gum Arabic emulsion or the 1% pectin emulsion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Hu X.-Z.,Northwest University, China | Xing X.-H.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Z.-M.,Northwest University, China | Wu R.-Q.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

Since ancient times, practicians of traditional Chinese medicine have discovered that Artemis sphaerocephala Krasch. (Compositae) seed was useful for the treatment of diabetes. A. sphaerocephala Krasch. gum (ASK gum) is the water extract from the seed powder of the plant and has been used as a novel food additive by the food industry in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant function of ASK gum on type 2 diabetes using Streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawleys rats as an animal model; the antioxidant property of ASK gum was measured by the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and OH, in liver and serum respectively. Normal rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin were used as the negative and positive control respectively. The results showed that a high-fat diet in combination with a low-dose Streptozotocin injection successfully induced type 2 diabetes among the experiment rats. The addition of ASK gum to the high-fat diet fed to the diabetic rats significantly increased their liver and serum SOD activities, however, the MDA and OH levels in both liver and serum were significantly reduced. In addition, ASK gum markedly lessened the oxidative damage of kidney in the diabetic rats. A dose-dependent was observed between the measured biological parameters and the amount of ASK gum added. ASK gum at a level of 2.7% provided a similar protective effect to the diabetic rats as metformin. © 2009.


Gowrinathan Y.,Guelph Food Research Center | Pacan J.C.,Guelph Food Research Center | Hawke A.,Guelph Food Research Center | Zhou T.,Guelph Food Research Center | Sabour P.M.,Guelph Food Research Center
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

The progeny production and development rates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans when treated with deoxynivalenol (DON) were examined. Both purified DON and a crude extract from Fusarium graminearum cultured on rice were tested on C. elegans wild-type (Bristol N2) and a mutant strain (AU1). Significant effects (Tukey-HSD, p <0.05) on brood size and the rate of larval development from egg to adulthood were observed. Both N2 and AU1 strains showed lower rates of development and smaller brood sizes when exposed to purified DON at concentrations of 500 and 1000 μg ml -1 When they were exposed to crude extract containing 250 μg ml -1 DON, the inhibition of egg hatching and a greatly reduced development rate were observed. The results suggest that selection of a more sensitive C. elegans mutant strain could be used as a suitable animal model for conducting DON toxicity assays. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.


PubMed | Guelph Food Research Center
Type: | Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

A transitiometric in situ analysis of wheat starch aqueous suspensions heated over a temperature range from 285 K to 415 K under isobaric conditions of 10 MPa is presented. Measurements were performed at four selected water concentrations: 56.0%, 64.7%, 73.5%, and 82.4% weight/water. Thermal and volumetric properties and their water content dependencies have been determined for three successive starch phase transformations occurred during wheat starch gelatinization.


PubMed | Guelph Food Research Center
Type: | Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Wheat starch gels containing 56.0% of water were obtained during thermal gelatinization under isobaric conditions at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 100 MPa. Thermogravimetric analysis allowed determination of pressure influence on water behavior in gel matrix. The vaporization rate indicated that water is released in two main steps. The first step corresponds to the diffusion of the water fraction (so-called nonbound water) from the porous structure of the amylose gel located between partially swollen starch granules. However, the second step that appears at higher temperature is related to the desorption of water molecules (bound water), included in the swollen granules. It was observed that the most important influence of pressure on water partitioning in the starch gel took place over a pressure range from 0.5 to 10 MPa. The results obtained indicate that pressure is a thermodynamical parameter, which stabilizes the native state of starch granules.


PubMed | Guelph Food Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2011

The progeny production and development rates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans when treated with deoxynivalenol (DON) were examined. Both purified DON and a crude extract from Fusarium graminearum cultured on rice were tested on C. elegans wild-type (Bristol N2) and a mutant strain (AU1). Significant effects (Tukey-HSD, p<0.05) on brood size and the rate of larval development from egg to adulthood were observed. Both N2 and AU1 strains showed lower rates of development and smaller brood sizes when exposed to purified DON at concentrations of 500 and 1000 g ml(-1) When they were exposed to crude extract containing 250 g ml(-1) DON, the inhibition of egg hatching and a greatly reduced development rate were observed. The results suggest that selection of a more sensitive C. elegans mutant strain could be used as a suitable animal model for conducting DON toxicity assays.

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