Guarulhos, Brazil

Guarulhos University
Guarulhos, Brazil
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Soares G.M.S.,Guarulhos University | Figueiredo L.C.,Guarulhos University | Faveri M.,Guarulhos University | Cortelli S.C.,University of Taubaté | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Oral Science | Year: 2012

Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections.

Pessenda L.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Gouveia S.E.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Ribeiro A.D.S.,Federal University of Sergipe | De Oliveira P.E.,Guarulhos University | Aravena R.,University of Waterloo
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Northeastern Brazil represents a strategic area in terms of Quaternary records of environmental changes in South America due to its distinct semi-arid climate in near equatorial latitudes. In this study, carbon isotope and charcoal distribution records in soils are used to characterize vegetation dynamics, forest fires and their relation to climate change since the Late Pleistocene in the States of Ceará, Piauí and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. At the Ceará site, the carbon isotope record showed an enrichment trend from -24‰ to -19‰ during the early-mid Holocene, indicating an opening of vegetation and expansion of savanna vegetation (C4 plants) during this period. A trend toward more depleted δ13C values (~-32‰) in the late Holocene indicates an expansion of forest vegetation (C3 plants). A similar trend is observed at the Piauí and Paraíba sites where values of ~-24‰ are associated with open forest vegetation during the late Pleistocene. In the early-mid Holocene, δ13C values of up to -18.0‰ suggest the expansion of C4 plants. Based on the carbon isotope data, it is postulated that from ~18,000cal yr B.P. to ~11,800cal yr B.P.-~10,000cal yr B.P. arboreal vegetation was dominant in northeastern Brazil and is associated with humid climates. The savanna expanded from ~10,000cal yr B.P. to ~4500-3200cal yr B.P. due to a less humid/drier climatic phase, also supported by the significant presence of fires (charcoal fragments in the soil). From approximately 3200-2000cal yr B.P. to the present, carbon isotope records suggest forest expansion and a more humid phase. These results form part of a regional pattern since they are in agreement with paleovegetation records obtained in regions of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil and in the Amazon and Rondonia States, northern Brazil. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Santoni C.B.,Guarulhos University | Fiorini A.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2010

Pop-rock musicians are at risk of developing hearing loss and other symptoms related to amplified music. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the satisfaction provided by the use of hearing protection in pop-rock musicians. Study design: Contemporary cohort study. Materials and Methods: A study of 23 male pop-rock musicians, aged between 25 to 45 years. After audiological evaluation (pure tone audiometry, middle ear analysis, TEOAE and DPOAE) hearing protective devices were provided to be used for three months. After that musicians answered a satisfaction assessment questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of hearing loss was of 21.7%. The most common complaints about the hearing protectors were: autophonia, pressure in the ears, interference in high frequencies perception and full time use of the hearing protector during concerts. There was a positive correlation between a reduction in tinnitus after the use of the HPD with the following complaints: tinnitus after beginning the career (p= 0.044), discomfort with the sound intensity in the work place (p= 0.009) and intolerance to loud sound (p= 0.029). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of hearing loss and a positive tendency towards the use of the ear protector device among the sample population.

Mohr B.A.R.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Coiffard C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,Guarulhos University | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2013

A fossil angiosperm from the Aptian Crato Formation (Brazil), Schenkeriphyllum glanduliferum n. gen. n. sp. is described and phylogenetically analyzed. The taxon consists of branching axes with attached simple sessile, sheathing, narrowly ovate glanduliferous leaves with ethereal oil cells and solitary axillary medium sized flowers. Several of the multiparted flowering structures are reasonably well preserved in differing stages of maturity. Broad obovate tepals, (stamens?), glanduliferous staminodes (more than 30?) and free carpels are arranged on a flat to slightly convex receptacle. The gynoecium consists of ca. 12 to 20 free carpels. Among recent Magnoliales only Magnoliaceae share many characters of the flowering structures with Schenkeriphyllum. A phylogenetic analysis confirms that Schenkeriphyllum represents most likely a sister taxon to Endressinia for which the diagnosis is slightly emended. Both fossil taxa may represent together a sister clade to extant Magnoliaceae. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Coiffard C.,Museum of Natural History | Molir B.A.R.,Museum of Natural History | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,Guarulhos University | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Taxon | Year: 2013

Morphology and anatomy of a fossil monocotyledon from the late Early Cretaceous and extant monocots are compared. Anatomy was examined based on publications, while leaf morphology, especially the venation, required new observations on fresh and herbarium material. Spixiarum kipea gen. et sp. nov. belongs most likely to Araceae, and may be sister to Orontioideae or is even part of this tribe. Consequently, proto-Araceae were most likely present during the Early Cretaceous in South America. The occurrence of Spixiarum in South America indicates a north Gondwana origin for Orontioideae and and thus may indicate a Gondwanan origin for proto-Araceae. Sedimentological and taphonomic context indicate that Spixiarum had probably a helophytic ecology similar to living Orontioideae and formed possibly the aquatic vegetation of the Crato Lake in association with the Nymphaeales Pluricarpellatia peltata and Jaguariba wiersemana. Early Cretaceous monocotyledon remains have been rarely recorded. It is debatable if their scarceness is a sign of low diversity or may be due to taphonomic/ecologic reasons.

Coiffard C.,Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity | Mohr B.A.R.,Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,Guarulhos University | Bernardes-de-Oliveira M.E.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Taxon | Year: 2013

Morphology and anatomy of a fossil nymphaealean plant, Jaguariba wiersemana gen. nov. et sp. nov. from the late Early Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil, and extant aquatic flowering plants are comparatively studied. Characteristic features indicate that Jaguariba gen. nov. is a member of Nymphaeaceae, and may belong to Nymphaeoideae. The occurrence of both Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae (e.g., Pluricarpellatia peltata) in the Lower Cretaceous contradicts recent molecular dating implying a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary divergence for those families. Furthermore, the morphology of the fossil and sedimentologic and taphonomic data indicate that Jaguariba gen. nov. had an aquatic ecology similar to living Nymphaeaceae. Thus the taxon was part of the aquatic vegetation of the Crato lake in association with Pluricarpellatia peltata, an earlier described cabombaceaen aquatic angiosperm.

Napimoga M.H.,Sao Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center | Nametala C.,Sao Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center | Da Silva F.L.,Sao Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center | Miranda T.S.,Guarulhos University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology | Year: 2014

Aim The regulation of Wnt-β-catenin signalling, which is crucial for osteoblast differentiation and for bone resorption, is driven by critical inhibitors such as sclerostin (SOST) and dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of SOST and DKK1 in human chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Gingival biopsies and serum were sampled from systemically healthy non-periodontitis (n = 15) and chronic periodontitis subjects (n = 15). The mRNA and protein levels of SOST, DKK1 and TNF-α in periodontal tissues were measured by qPCR and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Serum levels of SOST, DKK1 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Results The mRNA and protein levels of SOST, DKK1 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the gingival tissues of the chronic periodontitis when compared to the non-periodontitis group (p < 0.05). In addition, circulating levels of SOST and TNF-α, but not DKK1, were higher in the periodontitis group than in the non-periodontitis group (p < 0.05). Conclusion SOST and DKK1 were upregulated in the periodontal tissues of chronic periodontitis subjects, suggesting a possible role of these molecules on periodontal tissues. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chambrone L.,Guarulhos University | Chambrone L.,University of Sao Paulo | Preshaw P.M.,Northumbria University | Ferreira J.D.,Guarulhos University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Oral Implants Research | Year: 2014

Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smoking on the survival rate of dental implants placed in areas of maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Material and methods: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched in duplicate up to, and including, October 2012 without language restrictions. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they involved the treatment of smokers and non-smokers with titanium implants and sinus floor elevation procedures. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's quality assessment tool were used for the assessment of the risk of bias in included studies. Random effects meta-analyses were used to assess the number of implants lost in smokers vs. number of implants lost in non-smokers. Results: Of 3360 potentially eligible papers, eight studies were included. More than half (62.5%) of the studies found that smoking adversely affects implant survival in sites of sinus floor augmentation. Similarly, the pooled analysis indicated a statistically significantly increased risk of implant failure in smokers when the outcomes of all studies available to be included into meta-analysis were evaluated [RR: 1.87 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.58), P = 0.0001]. Conversely, a subgroup analysis including only prospective studies (3 studies) did not reveal significant differences in implant failure between smokers and non-smokers [RR: 1.55 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.65), P = 0.11]. Conclusions: Although smoking was associated with implant failure in most of individual studies and in the overall meta-analysis, the detrimental effect of smoking was not confirmed when only prospective data were assessed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the Brazilian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 PAL (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL) to be used in patients with cancer in palliative care. Methods: One hundred four outpatients with advanced cancer were recruited in Hospital das Clinicas - University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that Cronbach-α is ≥0.7 except for fatigue (α=0.58). Convergent validity was shown by the correlation observed between the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL dimensions with the EORTC QLQ-C30, Brief Pain Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. The EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL detected significant differences in the performance status, supporting known-group validity. Conclusions: Our data show that EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL is a brief, useful, and valid tool for assessing the quality of life of Brazilian patients in palliative care. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Elbreder M.F.,Federal University of São Paulo | De Humerez D.C.,Guarulhos University | Laranjeira R.,Federal University of São Paulo
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Despite the fact that alcoholism is a severe public health problem of worldwide proportions, only a limited number of medications is used as coadjuvant treatment. The objectives of this study were to analyse the use of disulfiram for alcohol-dependent patients and the immediate interruption of treatment following medication prescription. This is a transversal study of 810 patients who attended the Alcohol and Drug Research Unit (UNIAD) during the 2000-2006 period. The study showed that both male and female patients who had remained under treatment during the first year used proportionally more disulfiram than those who remained for lesser time under treatment, and immediate treatment interruption was statistically more significant in this latter group of patients after prescription of this medication. Although disulfiram is an old medication, it seems that this drug can be useful for keeping alcohol-dependent patients under outpatient treatment. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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