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Qian J.,Peking Union Medical College | Song J.,Peking Union Medical College | Gao H.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza, the first sequenced member of the Lamiaceae family, is reported here. The genome is 151,328 bp in length and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 82,695 bp) and small (SSC, 17,555 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,539 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Four forward, three inverted and seven tandem repeats were detected in the Salvia miltiorrhiza cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis among the 30 asterid cp genomes revealed that most SSRs are AT-rich, which contribute to the overall AT richness of these cp genomes. Additionally, fewer SSRs are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the non-coding regions, indicating an uneven distribution of SSRs within the cp genomes. Entire cp genome comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and three other Lamiales cp genomes showed a high degree of sequence similarity and a relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Sequence divergence analysis discovered the ten most divergent and ten most conserved genes as well as their length variation, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies in asterids. Our analysis also supports that both regional and functional constraints affect gene sequence evolution. Further, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sesamum indicum. The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant. © 2013 Qian et al.

Luo H.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Song J.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu L.,Peking Union Medical College | And 12 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2014

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a Chinese herb with significant pharmacologic effects because of the bioactive compounds of tanshinones and phenolic acids. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been used as an effective elicitor to enhance the production of these compounds. However, the molecular mechanism of MeJA-mediated tanshinone and salvianolic acid biosynthesis remains unclear. The transcriptional profiles of S. miltiorrhiza leaves at 12 h (T12) after MeJA elicitation and mock-treated leaves (T0) were generated using the Illumina deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy to detect the changes in gene expression in response to MeJA. In total, 37 647 unique sequences were obtained from about 21 million reads, and 25 641 (71.53%) of these sequences were annotated based on the BLAST searches against the public databases. A total of 5287 unique sequences were expressed differentially between the samples of T0 and T12, which covered almost all the known genes involved in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza. Many of the transcription factors (e.g. MYB, bHLH and WRKY) and genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction were expressed differentially in response to the MeJA induction. Importantly, three and four candidate cytochrome P450s (P450s) that could be involved in the tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis, respectively, were selected from the RNA-seq data based on co-expressed pattern analysis with SmCPS1/SmKSL1 and SmRAS, which are the key genes responsible for biosynthesis. This comprehensive investigation of MeJA-induced gene expression profiles can shed light on the molecular mechanisms of the MeJA-mediated bioactive compound biosynthesis and regulation in S. miltiorrhiza. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

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