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Ju C.-R.,Guangzhou Medical College | Chen R.-C.,Guangzhou Medical College
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction: It is well confirmed that myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and implicated in several diseases involved in muscle wasting and cachexia. Skeletal muscle wasting is an important systemic manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while the expression of circulating myostatin in COPD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of circulating myostatin and its relationship with skeletal muscle wasting in COPD. Methods: Seventy-one patients with stable COPD and sixty age-matched, healthy control subjects participated in the study. Total skeletal muscle mass (SMM) were calculated according to a validated formula by using age and anthropometric measurements. Serum levels of myostatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 were determined by ELISA. Results: Serum myostatin levels were significantly elevated in COPD patients when compared to controls [(11.85 ± 4.01) ng/ml vs. (7.46 ± 2.21) ng/ml, p < 0.01], while total SMM was significantly decreased in COPD patients when compared to controls [(20.81 ± 1.74) kg vs. (27.31 ± 2.18) kg for male, and (11.70 ± 0.56) kg vs. (19.89 ± 1.47) kg for female] (both p < 0.05). Regression correlation analysis on all COPD patients showed that serum myostatin levels weren't significantly correlated with SMM, but correlated with TNF-α levels (R 2 = 0.042, p = 0.048). However, when stratified for gender, serum myostatin levels were correlated inversely both with SMM (R 2 = 0.20, p = 0.000) and with BMI (R 2 = 0.084, p = 0.019) in subgroup of male patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that circulating myostatin levels are elevated in COPD and related to SMM in male patients, suggesting that myostatin contributes to skeletal muscle wasting in COPD. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma exacerbation are yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nebulized ICS in children with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in an emergency room setting in order to elucidate the potential use of ICS as the first-line therapy in the management of acute exacerbation of asthma. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in emergency room were randomized to receive nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, with the addition of nebulized high-dose budesonide (BUD group, n = 60) or normal saline (control group, n = 58), three doses in the first hour. The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was similar in both groups at 0 h after three doses of nebulization, but there was significantly further improvement at 1 and 2 h in the BUD group (0.095 ± 0.062 L and 0.100 ± 0.120 L, respectively) compared with the control group (0.059 ± 0.082 L and 0.021 ± 0.128 L, respectively), P = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively. Complete remission rate was significantly higher (84.7% vs 46.3%, P = 0.004) and need for oral corticosteroids was significantly lower (16.9% vs 46.3%, P = 0.011) in BUD group than in control group. On the basis of nebulized short-acting bronchodilators, addition of nebulized high-dose budesonide resulted in clinical improvement in children with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma, suggesting that nebulized high-dose ICS can be used as first-line therapy for non-life-threatening acute exacerbation of asthma in children. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in occurrence, development, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Isolation and identification of CSCs have been performed from some cancer tissues or cells. In this paper, human lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were induced and isolated from SPC-A1 cells and their characteristics were determined. SPC-A1 cells were cultured in serum-free medium and epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were added into the medium to induce the formation of multicellular tumor spheroids. The results showed that floating multicellular tumor spheroids (named pulmospheres) were formed 5-10 d after the induction of SPC-A1 cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that in the pulmospheres, the marker of bronchioalveolar stem cells, Clara cell secretary protein and the marker of AT2 cells, alveolar surfactant protein C were highly expressed. Furthermore, such embryonic stem cell markers as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), Bmi-1, and thyroid transcription factor -1 (TTF-1) were also highly expressed. Some miRNAs as hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-145, hsa-let-7g, hsa-let-7d, hsa-let-7c, hsa-let-7e and hsa-miR-98, which were lowly expressed in SPC-A1 cells, were not expressed in the pulmospheres. Cell cycle analysis showed that 94.29 % of the pulmosphere cells were in G1 stages. Further study showed that these cells possessed higher proliferation and invasion activity than SPC-A1 cells. Tumorigenicity activity experiments on BALB/c nude mice showed that 1 × 103 of the pulmosphere cells could form tumors with similar pathological features with lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were enriched in the pulmosphere cells and were with high tumorigenicity.

Derivation of embryonic stem cells from patient-specific cloned blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds promise for both regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. However, the efficiency of blastocyst formation after human SCNT is very low. The developmental competence of SCNT embryos has been previously demonstrated in several species to be enhanced by treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as trichostatin A (TSA), to increase histone acetylation. In this study, we report that treatment of SCNT embryos with 5 nM TSA for 10 h following activation incubation increased the developmental competence of human SCNT embryos constructed from β-thalassemia fibroblast cells. The efficiency of blastocyst formation from SCNT human embryos treated with TSA was approximately 2 times greater than that from untreated embryos. Cloned blastocysts were confirmed to be generated through SCNT by DNA and mitochondrial DNA fingerprinting analyses. Further, treatment of SCNT embryos with TSA improved the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 in a manner similar to that observed in in vitro fertilized embryos.

Wu Y.,Guangzhou Medical College
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University | Year: 2013

To evaluate efficacy of dexmedetomidine in preventing shivering after general anesthesia in women undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Eighty patients scheduled for laparoscopic gynecological surgery were randomized into dexmedetomidine group (n=40) and control group (n=40) to receive 1.0 μg/kg dexmedetomidine or an equal volume of saline slowly injected (for over 10 min) at 30 min before the anticipated completion of surgery. The postoperative incidences of shivering and the side effects were recorded. The patients in the control group showed a significantly higher postoperative incidence of shivering (37.5%) than those in dexmedetomidine group (P<0.05). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure showed significant variations postoperatively in dexmedetomidine group (P<0.05), which had a significantly greater sedation score (P<0.05), a higher incidence of dry mouth (P=0.000), but a significantly lower incidence of nausea and vomiting than the control group (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine can lower the incidence of shivering after general anesthesia for laparoscopic gynecological surgery.

BACKGROUND: Early prostate cancer antigen (EPCA), a nuclear matrix protein, has been recently suggested as a novel biomarker in malignant lesions of the prostate. This study was to determine whether preoperative serum EPCA levels predicted the presence of incidental prostate cancer (IPCa) in patients undergoing TURP for BPH. METHODS: Serum EPCA levels were measured by ELISA in 449 consecutive patients with symptomatic BPH treated with TURP and 112 healthy men. Predictive performance of serum EPCA levels for IPCa were evaluated. RESULTS: With a cutoff of 10ng/ml, serum EPCA protein had a 100% specificity for the healthy men and a 98% specificity and a 100% sensitivity in separating men with IPCa from those without. Serum EPCA levels in patients with IPCa were significantly higher than in those without and in healthy controls (17.63±2.42ng/ml vs. 5.58±1.61ng/ml and 4.95±1.43ng/ml, all P<0.001), whereas an indwelling transurethral catheter presence and 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy had no effect on EPCA levels (P=0.144 and P=0.238, respectively). The area under ROC curves (AUC) showed that serum EPCA level had the best predictive accuracy of all IPCa (AUC: 0.952, 95% CI: 0.912-0.981, P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses further demonstrated the independently predictive performance by preoperative serum EPCA (Hazards Ratio: 4.23, 95% CI: 3.62-6.46, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study firstly shows that EPCA might be used as a highly sensitive and specific serum biomarker to predict IPCa presence and to help reduce the unnecessary biopsies taken before TURP in patients with BPH. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Deng H.,Guangzhou Medical College
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2012

Relapsing polychondritis is a rare multisystemic disease, which is characterized by recurrent inflammation of the cartilaginous structures. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with progressive respiratory distress. Chest Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated increased attenuation and smooth thickening of airway walls. Positron emission tomography/CT scan identified the multisystemic cartilaginous abnormalities that were recognized by an increased fluorine-18 deoxyglucose uptake on nasal cartilages, laryngeal cartilages, tracheobronchial tree, and rib cartilages. Positron emission tomography/CT is a useful tool to diagnose relapsing polychondritis, as the condition shows multisystemic cartilaginous abnormalities that can be identified by an increased fluorine-18 deoxyglucose uptake.

Luo Y.,Guangzhou Medical College
The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2012

Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells of patients represents a powerful tool for disease modeling, and they may have a wide range of applications in cell therapies. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is a rare and debilitating neurologic disease of insidious onset, characterized by atrophy of the cerebellum pons and inferior olivary nuclei with concomitant ambulation deficits and dyscoordination. Here, we report the generation of iPS cells from skin fibroblasts of a 56-year-old female patient with familial OPCA. OPCA is classified in the autosomal dominant ataxia that is also named spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 7. The disease allele of SCA7 gene of the patient contains 45 CAG trinucleotide repeats, the number of which is larger than the normal repeat number (4 to 36 CAG repeats). The OPCA-iPS cells were generated via ectopic expression of four transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. The OPCA-iPS cells expressed the pluripotency markers, and they can be differentiated into various somatic cell types in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the iPS cells also can be committed to differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, the OPCA-iPS cells offer an unprecedented cell model to investigate disease mechanisms, discover novel drugs, and develop new therapies for OPCA.

Growing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cellular radiosensitivity. This study aimed to explore the role of miRNAs in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) radiosensitivity. Microarray was employed to compare the miRNA expression profiles in B cell lymphoma cell line Raji before and after a 2-Gy dose of radiation. A total of 20 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified including 10 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated (defined as P < 0.05). Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-148b was up-regulated 1.53-fold in response to radiation treatment. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed the up-regulation of miR-148b after radiation. Transient transfection experiments showed that miR-148b was up-regulated by miR-148b mimic and down-regulated by miR-148b inhibitor in the Raji cells. A proliferation assay showed that miR-148b could inhibit the proliferation of Raji cells before and after radiation. A clonogenic assay demonstrated that miR-148b sensitized Raji cells to radiotherapy. MiR-148b did not affect the cell cycle profile of post-radiation Raji cells compared with controls. An apoptosis assay showed that miR-148b enhanced apoptosis of Raji cells after irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-148b increased the radiosensitivity of NHL cells probably by promoting radiation-induced apoptosis, which suggests that miR-148b plays an important role in the response of NHL to ionizing radiation.

Li Y.-Y.,Guangzhou Medical College
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common worldwide. The importance of genetic and epigenetic changes in etiology and pathogenesis of NAFLD has been increasingly recognized. However, the exact mechanism is largely unknown. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to NAFLD has been documented by candidate gene studies (CGSs). Among these genes, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α were frequently reported. Since the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), there have been significant advances in our understanding of genomic variations of NAFLD. Patatinlike phospholipase domain containing family member A3 (PNPLA3, SNP rs738409, encoding I148M), also termed adiponutrin, has caught most attention. The evidence that PNPLA3 is associated with increased hepatic fat levels and hepatic inflammation has been validated by a series of studies. Epigenetic modification refers to phenotypic changes caused by an adaptive mechanism unrelated to alteration of primary DNA sequences. Epigenetic regulation mainly includes microRNAs (miRs), DNA methylation, histone modifications and ubiquitination, among which miRs are studied most extensively. miRs are small natural single stranded RNA molecules regulating mRNA degradation or translation inhibition, subsequently altering protein expression of target genes. The miR-122, a highly abundant miR accounting for nearly 70% of all miRs in the liver, is significantly under-expressed in NAFLD subjects. Inhibition of miR-122 with an antisense oligonucleotide results in decreased mRNA expression of lipogenic genes and improvement of liver steatosis. The investigation into epigenetic involvement in NAFLD pathogenesis is just at the beginning and needs to be refined. This review summarizes the roles of genetics and epigenetics in the development of NAFLD. The progress made in this field may provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for NAFLD management. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

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