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Dongfeng, China

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in occurrence, development, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Isolation and identification of CSCs have been performed from some cancer tissues or cells. In this paper, human lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were induced and isolated from SPC-A1 cells and their characteristics were determined. SPC-A1 cells were cultured in serum-free medium and epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were added into the medium to induce the formation of multicellular tumor spheroids. The results showed that floating multicellular tumor spheroids (named pulmospheres) were formed 5-10 d after the induction of SPC-A1 cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that in the pulmospheres, the marker of bronchioalveolar stem cells, Clara cell secretary protein and the marker of AT2 cells, alveolar surfactant protein C were highly expressed. Furthermore, such embryonic stem cell markers as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), Bmi-1, and thyroid transcription factor -1 (TTF-1) were also highly expressed. Some miRNAs as hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-145, hsa-let-7g, hsa-let-7d, hsa-let-7c, hsa-let-7e and hsa-miR-98, which were lowly expressed in SPC-A1 cells, were not expressed in the pulmospheres. Cell cycle analysis showed that 94.29 % of the pulmosphere cells were in G1 stages. Further study showed that these cells possessed higher proliferation and invasion activity than SPC-A1 cells. Tumorigenicity activity experiments on BALB/c nude mice showed that 1 × 103 of the pulmosphere cells could form tumors with similar pathological features with lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were enriched in the pulmosphere cells and were with high tumorigenicity.

The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma exacerbation are yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nebulized ICS in children with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in an emergency room setting in order to elucidate the potential use of ICS as the first-line therapy in the management of acute exacerbation of asthma. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in emergency room were randomized to receive nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, with the addition of nebulized high-dose budesonide (BUD group, n = 60) or normal saline (control group, n = 58), three doses in the first hour. The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was similar in both groups at 0 h after three doses of nebulization, but there was significantly further improvement at 1 and 2 h in the BUD group (0.095 ± 0.062 L and 0.100 ± 0.120 L, respectively) compared with the control group (0.059 ± 0.082 L and 0.021 ± 0.128 L, respectively), P = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively. Complete remission rate was significantly higher (84.7% vs 46.3%, P = 0.004) and need for oral corticosteroids was significantly lower (16.9% vs 46.3%, P = 0.011) in BUD group than in control group. On the basis of nebulized short-acting bronchodilators, addition of nebulized high-dose budesonide resulted in clinical improvement in children with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma, suggesting that nebulized high-dose ICS can be used as first-line therapy for non-life-threatening acute exacerbation of asthma in children. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

Derivation of embryonic stem cells from patient-specific cloned blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds promise for both regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. However, the efficiency of blastocyst formation after human SCNT is very low. The developmental competence of SCNT embryos has been previously demonstrated in several species to be enhanced by treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as trichostatin A (TSA), to increase histone acetylation. In this study, we report that treatment of SCNT embryos with 5 nM TSA for 10 h following activation incubation increased the developmental competence of human SCNT embryos constructed from β-thalassemia fibroblast cells. The efficiency of blastocyst formation from SCNT human embryos treated with TSA was approximately 2 times greater than that from untreated embryos. Cloned blastocysts were confirmed to be generated through SCNT by DNA and mitochondrial DNA fingerprinting analyses. Further, treatment of SCNT embryos with TSA improved the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 in a manner similar to that observed in in vitro fertilized embryos.

Luo Y.,Guangzhou Medical College
The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2012

Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells of patients represents a powerful tool for disease modeling, and they may have a wide range of applications in cell therapies. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is a rare and debilitating neurologic disease of insidious onset, characterized by atrophy of the cerebellum pons and inferior olivary nuclei with concomitant ambulation deficits and dyscoordination. Here, we report the generation of iPS cells from skin fibroblasts of a 56-year-old female patient with familial OPCA. OPCA is classified in the autosomal dominant ataxia that is also named spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 7. The disease allele of SCA7 gene of the patient contains 45 CAG trinucleotide repeats, the number of which is larger than the normal repeat number (4 to 36 CAG repeats). The OPCA-iPS cells were generated via ectopic expression of four transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. The OPCA-iPS cells expressed the pluripotency markers, and they can be differentiated into various somatic cell types in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the iPS cells also can be committed to differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, the OPCA-iPS cells offer an unprecedented cell model to investigate disease mechanisms, discover novel drugs, and develop new therapies for OPCA.

Deng H.,Guangzhou Medical College
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2012

Relapsing polychondritis is a rare multisystemic disease, which is characterized by recurrent inflammation of the cartilaginous structures. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with progressive respiratory distress. Chest Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated increased attenuation and smooth thickening of airway walls. Positron emission tomography/CT scan identified the multisystemic cartilaginous abnormalities that were recognized by an increased fluorine-18 deoxyglucose uptake on nasal cartilages, laryngeal cartilages, tracheobronchial tree, and rib cartilages. Positron emission tomography/CT is a useful tool to diagnose relapsing polychondritis, as the condition shows multisystemic cartilaginous abnormalities that can be identified by an increased fluorine-18 deoxyglucose uptake.

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