Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening

Guangzhou, China

Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening

Guangzhou, China
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Li J.,University of Macau | Zhang J.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Lu Y.,South China Agricultural University | Chen Y.,University of Macau | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) pollution in regional agricultural soils was investigated. Seventy soil samples collected from surface layers (0-20 cm) and horizons of five selected pedons in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China were analyzed, and the vertical variation and spatial variability of TPH were evaluated. The TPH concentration in top soils around the petrochemical complex ranged from 1,179.3 to 6,354.9 mg kg- 1, with the average of 2,676.6 mg kg- 1. Furthermore, significant differences between land-use types showed that the TPH concentration in top soils was strongly influenced by accidental spills. Both the TPH trends in pedons and the identified hot-spot areas also showed that the accidental explosions or burning accidents were mainly responsible for the pollution. The results reported here suggest that the regular monitoring and inspection shall be conducted for safety and to avoid or minimize the accidents, and the effective measures should be taken to remediate the contaminated areas and to assure that the important industrialization of Guangzhou area would not mean human health risks near the petrochemical complex. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kejun S.,University of South China | Kejun S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Juntao Z.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Ying C.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm -1) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH 3- and -CH 2-) (1450-1460 cm -1); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm -1); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm -1)] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate can reduce the relative crystallinity of lignocellulose in F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia by 2.64%, 13.24%, 12.44%, respectively. The C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) comes from the vibration of the sugar anomeric carbon. Because lignin is a phenolic, not carbohydrate polymer, the relative absorption intensity of this peak should be stronger at lower lignin contents. Compared to CK, the peak intensities increased in treatments T1, T5 and T9, indicating reduced lignin contents and increased sugar contents after CDA treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kejun S.,University of South China | Kejun S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Juntao Z.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Lin R.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

To deal with the problems of water content and high viscosity in municipal activated sludge, which lead to a restriction in resource utilisation, we used calcined magnesia to treat the sludge. As shown in the X-ray diffraction analysis, compared with untreated municipal activated sludge, the mineral composition, including kaolin [Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4] and chloritoid [(Fe, Mg)Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 2], in the municipal sludge treated with calcined magnesia dramatically changed. Because its intramolecular water disappears and a portion of the water content is evaporated during the reaction between the calcined magnesia and water, the dehydration rate of the municipal waste activated sludge increased, the drying time was shortened to 5.30min and the dried coat thickness increases at least 3-fold. Using a scanning electron microscope, we determined that using calcined magnesia to treat municipal activated sludge leads to a coagulation of fine particles and an increase in rough particles, along with a reduction in soil particles of less than 0.01mm by up to 69%. Using calcined magnesia to treat the municipal activated sludge can improve its dehydration properties and lower the viscosity and cost in a simple operation. Additionally, it provides magnesium to plants for thermophilic fermentation, creating favourable conditions for aerobic composting. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dai S.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Dai S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Dai S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Wu W.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2012

In this study, we sequenced two nuclear genes and one chloroplast spacer in Melastoma intermedium, a shrub species endemic to China, and its putative parental species, Melastoma candidum and Melastoma dodecandrum, to test the hybrid-origin hypothesis. Our results revealed that in one nuclear gene there were five fixed nucleotide substitutions between M. candidum and M. dodecandrum, and in the other nuclear gene, there were six. All but one individual of M. intermedium showed additivity in chromatograms at these sites of at least one gene. Haplotypes of M. candidum and M. dodecandrum at the two nuclear genes were well separated, and most haplotypes of M. intermedium were shared with those of M. candidum and M. dodecandrum. M. candidum and M. dodecandrum differed by three nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast spacer, whereas individuals of M. intermedium had identical sequences to either M. candidum or M. dodecandrum. The molecular data clearly demonstrate that M. intermedium is of hybrid origin. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dai S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Wang S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ruan L.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Zhou Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2015

Understanding the evolutionary processes in species at the margins of their range is of great significance, because marginal populations may harbor local adaptations and will initiate further expansion in response to changes in the environment. Here we examined genetic variation in two nuclear genes and one chloroplast intergenic spacer in 13 northern marginal populations and one geographically central population of Bombax ceiba, a tree distributed mainly in tropical regions. Our results revealed an extremely low level of genetic diversity in each population at the northern margin of its range and strong genetic differentiation between southern China and South Asia. Cultivated and natural populations showed no significant differences in genetic variability. Genetic admixture in a nuclear gene was detected in 10 of the 13 populations at the northern margin of their range. The founder effect, in which a small number of individuals colonize the northern margins of its range, may explain the extremely low genetic diversity. During the establishment of new populations, different source populations may mix and undergo further genetic drift and differentiation. This study indicates that patterns of genetic diversity in tropical species at the margin of their range may also be severely influenced by founder effects. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chao L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang S.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Natural hybridization can lead to various evolutionary outcomes in plants, including hybrid speciation and interspecific gene transfer. It can also cause taxonomic problems, especially in plant genera containing multiple species. In this study, the hybrid status of Melastoma affine, the most widespread taxon in this genus, and introgression between its putative parental species, M. candidum and M. sanguineum, were assessed on two sites, Hainan and Guangdong, using 13 SSR markers and sequences of a chloroplast intergenic spacer. Bayesian-based STRUCTURE analysis detected two most likely distinct clusters for the three taxa, and 76.0% and 73.9% of the morphologically identified individuals of M. candidum and M. sanguineum were correctly assigned, respectively. 74.5% of the M. affine individuals had a membership coefficient to either parental species between 0.1 and 0.9, suggesting admixture between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Furthermore, NewHybrids analysis suggested that most individuals of M. affine were F2 hybrids or backcross hybrids to M. candidum, and that there was extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. These SSR data thus provides convincing evidence for hybrid origin of M. affine and extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Chloroplast DNA results were consistent with this conclusion. Much higher hybrid frequency on the more disturbed Guangdong site suggests that human disturbance might offer suitable habitats for the survival of hybrids, a hypothesis that is in need of further testing. © 2014 Liu et al.

Xin G.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ye S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ye S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Wu E.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The seasonal dynamics in the colonization of the rhizosphere of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the production of spores in an artifical Japanese grassland was investigated over 12 months (between December 2001 and December 2002). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization fluctuated seasonally in the rhizosphere of both pastures. The total AM fungal colonization of the two pastures decreased during winter, then increased from March to June as the pastures grew, but slightly decreased again in July and August, and again followed an increase in September. There was significant difference of the colonization by arbuscules and vesicles between the two pastures (p<0.05). Besides, the vesicular colonization of orchardgrass was higher than that of white clover, but the opposite trend was observed for arbuscular colonization. Similarly, the numbers of AM fungal spores in the pastures varied throughout the year, decreasing from spring to summer, then slowly increasing in late summer, reaching peak levels in winter. There is significant correlation between the frequency of spores in the rhizosphere soil and both soil temperature and pH.

Ye S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ye S.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Yang Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xin G.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 4 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2015

Greater understanding of roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Italian ryegrass (. Lolium mutiflorum L.) is required, particularly in the Italian ryegrass-rice rotation (IRR) system applied in southern China. Therefore, we examined growth of Italian ryegrass inoculated with either or both of two AMF species (. Glomus mosseae and G. versiforme), and AMF-free controls, in pots. AMF in the roots promoted ryegrass biomass accumulation and affected both the soil microorganisms and rhizosphere enzyme activities. Inoculation with G. versiforme alone resulted in the highest percentage of mycorrhizal root colonization and highest soil urease activity. Inoculation with either AMF species alone also resulted in much higher ryegrass root dry weights than use of both species (. P<. 0.05), but the reverse was true for soil invertase activity and the abundance of soil fungi and actinomyces. We also explored effects of AMF on N and P uptake by the ryegrass, soil microbes and enzymes in a multi-compartment rhizobox experiment with two treatments: inoculation with viable and autoclaved G. versiforme. Despite a low root colonization percentage, the presence of viable AMF markedly increased: alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in the rhizosphere (. P<. 0.05); the abundance of ammonifying bacteria, nitrosobacteria, denitrifying bacteria and inorganic phosphobacteria; and both N and P uptake of the plants. Root N contents were positively correlated with both soil urease activity and soil denitrifying bacteria (. P<. 0.05), while shoot and root P contents were positively correlated with soil total P and available P, respectively (. P<. 0.05). Thus, AMF colonization clearly increased the abundance of soil microorganisms and enzyme (excluding invertase) activities, thereby enhancing N and P uptake of the ryegrass. © 2015 .

Zhu C.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Xiong Y.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening | Ma X.,South China Agricultural University | Ke X.,South China Agricultural University | Su Z.,South China Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

In order to reveal the effect of disturbance on species composition and detect indicator species for disturbance gradients, we conducted an investigation of urban forest communities along a disturbance gradient in Guangzhou, China. Species richness in the tree layer and understory had no significant difference among disturbance gradients, but Simpson index, Shannon-Weiner index and Evenness index varied significantly.species diversity index decreased with disturbance gradient. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) revealed high significance in species composition of both tree and understory layer among different disturbance gradients. Twelve species from the tree layer and 25 from the understory were detected to characterize the forest communities with a certain disturbance regime by Indicator Species Analysis (ISA). Indicator species help enhance our understanding of species-environment relationship, and the ecological response of indicator species to disturbance can be used for monitoring forest environmental change. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hu Y.-Q.,South China Agricultural University | Su Z.-Y.,South China Agricultural University | Ke X.-D.,South China Agricultural University | Xiong Y.-M.,Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

The importance of eucalypt plantations to industrial forestry has been widely recognised. However, growing concern about the effects of eucalypt plantations on the environment has given rise to disputes in plantation forestry. In this study, using understory vegetation as environmental indicators, we compared species composition, diversity, and community structure of two eucalypt plantations (one-year-old and three-year-old eucalypt plantations) with the indigenous flora, with an aim to gain new insights into the environmental effects of eucalypt plantation. The two eucalypt plantations were significantly lower in species richness and number of individuals in the understory as compared with the indigenous flora. All the diversity measures except species-specific density (number of individuals per species) were different between the eucalypt and the indigenous forest stands. The dominance/diversity curves of the two eucalypt stands had similar shapes, which were together far apart from that of the indigenous forest stand. Correlation analysis of ordination sample scores indicated that the two eucalypt stands was positively related, while they were negatively correlated to the indigenous forest stand. Most of the indicator species of the two eucalypt stands were ruderal herbs and shrubs, while the indicator species for the indigenous forest understory were dominant tree seedlings, shrubs and lianas. However, all the understory species in different stands were native species from the local species pool. No invasive plant species had been found to occur in the understory of the eucalypt plantations. Our study suggested that environmental impacts of eucalypt plantations on local biodiversity existed, however, fears about eucalypt trees as "big killers of local species" and eucalypt plantations as "green desert" should be reconsidered.

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