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Guangzhou, China

Jin H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Wang B.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fang Z.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Duan Z.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in China. To evaluate the economic burden associated with rotavirus infection of children in China, we combined data on the disease burden of rotavirus-associated costs for samples comprising 832 outpatients and 604 inpatients from five seaside cities. The average social costs and direct medical costs for rotavirus-associated admissions were calculated to be US $61.64 and US $40.73 for outpatients, and US $684.15 and US $559.48 for inpatients, respectively, from October 1, 2006 to December 1, 2007. On average, the private cost ranged from US $54.64 for outpatients to US $454.24 for inpatients when children suffered from rotavirus infection. Accordingly, this cost accounted for 35.19-293% of the monthly income of an unskilled or service worker. We estimated that the annual number of children with rotavirus diarrhea was 12.10 million. Consequently, the total annual direct cost, total annual social cost, and total annual private cost were US $271.4 million, US $365.0 million, and US $290.0 million, respectively. Furthermore, rotavirus diarrhea affected children's behavior and emotions, which had a great influence on the caretakers' quality of life. These data indicate the potential requirement for a safe and effective rotavirus vaccine to reduce the economic burden associated with rotavirus disease. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tao B.,Taizhou University | Ruan G.,Taizhou University | Wang D.,Taizhou University | Li Y.,Taizhou University | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2015

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) accompanying with bronchial asthma (BA). 24. children with AR, 22 children with BA, 18 children with AR accompanying with BA, and 20 healthy controls were recruited. The prevalence of peripheral blood Th17 and Treg cells were determined by flow cytometry. mRNA expression of retinoid-acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) were determined by realtime polymerase chain reaction. Cytokine expressions in plasma were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of Th17 cells, ROR-γt mRNA expression, and the plasma levels of IL-17 were significantly higher, while Treg cells and Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were significantly lower in children with AR accompanying with BA compared with those in children with AR or BA alone or control subjects. In children with allergic airway disease, total IgE levels were positively correlated to the frequency of Th17 cells (r=0.607, p<0.01), plasma IL-17 levels, and negatively correlated to the frequency of Treg cells (r=-0.429, p<0.01) and TGF-β1 levels (r=-0.224, p<0.01). While Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (% predicted) was negatively correlated to the frequency of Th17 cells (r=-0.602, p<0.01), plasma IL-17 levels (r=-0.577, p<0.01), and positively correlated to the frequency of Treg cells (r=0.504, p<0.01) and TGF-β1 levels (r=0.231, p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that the imbalance of peripheral Th17/Treg cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AR accompanying with BA. Copyright © Spring 2015, Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. All rights reserved.

Geng W.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Wu D.,Capital Medical University | Huang G.,Fudan University | And 9 more authors.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from Chinese children. Ninety-nine isolates were collected from eight hospitals, and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, and spa typing. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was also detected. Overall, 14 sequence types (STs) were obtained, and ST59 (58.6%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by ST1 (8%) and ST338 (8%). We also first registered the new ST1409. SCCmec type IV was the most predominant type at 67.7%, followed by SCCmec type V at 32.3%. SCCmec subtypes IVa, IVc, and IVg were found among the SCCmec type IV strains. Twenty-one spa types were also identified. Four new spa types were found by synchronization with the Ridom SpaServer and referring to the website (). ST59-MRSA-IVa with t437 accounted for 40.4% of occurrences, making it the most prevalent clone. The prevalence of PVL genes was 58.6%, and multidrug resistance was observed in 95% of all isolates. This result indicates that CA-MRSA isolates in Chinese children are largely associated with the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and that the predominant clones of CA-MRSA are spread all over the country. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ma H.-M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen S.-K.,Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Chen R.-M.,Fuzhou Childrens Hospital | Zhu C.,Capital Medical University | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Andrology | Year: 2011

We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH 2) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

Geng W.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Wang C.,Fudan University | Deng L.,Guangzhou Childrens Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2010

Aim: To investigate the characteristic of community-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among children in China. Methods: Forty-seven children with CA-MRSA SSTIs were enrolled in this study. Clinical information was collected and analysed. The strains from the children were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and spa typing. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was also detected. Results: The majority of the 47 cases were impetigo (20; 42.6%) and abscesses (14; 29.8%). The rest was cellulites, infected wounds, omphalitis, paronychia and conjunctivitis combined folliculitis. Thirty-two of the isolates (68.1%) were PVL-positive, and the abscesses infected with PVL-positive strains usually required incision and drainage (87.5% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.026). Most of the isolates belonged to ST type 59, which accounted for 46.8%, followed by ST1 (7/47, 14.9%) and ST910 (5/47, 10.6%). The clone of ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 was the most prevalent one. The multiresistant rate of these strains was 93.6%. Conclusion: The most common disease of CA-MRSA SSTIs was impetigo, and PVL-positive abscess was associated with incision and drainage. ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 was the most prevalent clone, and the multiresistant rate was high in Chinese children. © 2009 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.

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