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Harrison T.J.,University College London | Yang J.-Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Chen Q.-Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Wang X.-Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Fang Z.-L.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control
Liver International | Year: 2013

Background: Although persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the mechanisms of oncogenesis remain obscure. Aims: To determine whether the findings that HBV basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T, G1764A double mutations, pre-S deletions and a combination of both are risk factors of HCC are supported by geographical epidemiology. Methods: Study subjects were recruited from Long An county, where the incidence of HCC is the highest, and five other counties in Guangxi, where the HCC incidence is lower and varies among them. The Pre-S region and BCP of HBV from all study subjects were amplified and sequenced and the data were analysed using chi-squared tests. Results: The prevalence of BCP and pre-S mutations differs significantly (χ2 = 9.850, 5.135, respectively, all P < 0.01) between Long An and the other counties. However, the prevalence of combined BCP and pre-S mutations does not differ significantly (χ2 = 1.510, P > 0.05). These mutations are less frequent in the young but the prevalence of pre-S deletions does not increase with age. The prevalence of these mutations does not differ significantly between men and women but is significantly higher in Zhuang than the other ethnic populations. Among the other five counties, the prevalence of BCP mutations in counties where the HCC incidence is high is significantly higher than that of counties where the HCC incidence is low. Conclusions: Combined BCP double mutations and pre-S deletion may not increase the risk of HCC, although these mutations are a risk factor of HCC when they present alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Zeng X.,Guangxi Medical University | Liu S.,Guangxi Medical University | Yu H.,Guangxi Medical University | Ji L.,Taishan Medical College | And 4 more authors.
DNA and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The associations between DNA repair capacity (DRC), DNA repair gene polymorphisms, and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been determined in high-risk areas. The aims of this study were to investigate whether DRC is related to the incidence of HCC and to determine whether polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes that regulate DRC are associated with the risk of HCC. First, a small case-control study was conducted to examine the association between DRC and the incidence of HCC and the environmental and genetic factors regulating DRC. Then, a large case-control study was conducted to determine whether those DNA repair gene polymorphisms shown to regulate DRC were related to the risk of HCC. The median DRC was significantly lower among the cases (0.80) than the controls (0.93). A multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the HBsAg status (p<0.01), ethnicity (p=0.01), and polymorphisms in the XRCC3-241 (p=0.01) and APE1-148 (p=0.03) gene loci may be impact factors for DRC. In the large case-control study, a stratified analysis showed that individuals with the APE1-148-combined genotype GT+TT likely had a significantly higher HCC risk compared with those with only the GG genotype (crude odds ratio=1.93, 95% confidence interval=1.17-3.17) among the Zhuang ethnicity. However, nonsignificant differences were observed between XRCC3-241 polymorphisms and the HCC risk. DRC may be related to the incidence of HCC as determined by environmental and genetic factors found in southwestern part of the Guangxi Province. Gene-environment interactions play an important role in the incidence and progression of HCC. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control and University College London
Type: | Journal: Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers | Year: 2017

The accuracy of des- -carboxyprothrombin (DCP) in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in those infected hepatitis B virus (HBV) from cross-sectional or case-control studies are contradictory.To resolve this contradiction using a prospective study.Three hundreds male individuals persistently infected with HBV were recruited from the Chinese cohort and followed up once per year from 2012 to 2015. Each subject was screened for HCC by measurements of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lectin-bound -fetoprotein (AFP-L3), DCP concentrations and ultrasonographic examinations.Nineteen HCC cases were identified. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) at first, second and third visit for AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP ranges from 0.710-0.897, 0.566-0.637 and 0.520-0.595, respectively. The rate of elevated DCP is not significantly different between the HCC cases and controls (52.6% vs. 47.4%) (P > 0.05). The incidence of HCC in subjects with elevated DCP is not significantly higher than that of those with normal DCP (9.5% vs. 4.6%) (P > 0.05). The AUROC of combinations of these biomarkers was higher than that of AFP alone at the first visit. However, it was reduced at the second visit. At the third visit, the AUROCs of AFP + DCP and AFP + AFP-L3 + DCP, but not that of AFP + AFP-L3, were higher than that of AFP alone.AFP but DCP or AFP-L3 remains a valuable biomarker for HCC in those chronically infected with HBV. The combination with AFP-L3 and DCP may not increase the accuracy of AFP in differentiating HCC cases from controls, among those infected with HBV.


Xie Y.-H.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Xie Y.-H.,Prince of Songkla University | Xie Y.-H.,Ministry of Public Health | Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Amid numerous outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia over the past decade, studies on spatio-temporal clustering are limited. Without this information the distribution of severe cases assumed to be sporadic. We analyzed surveillance data with onset dates between 1 May 2008 to 31 October 2013 with the aim to document the spatiotemporal clustering of HFMD cases and severe cases at the county level. Methods: Purely temporal and purely spatial descriptive analyses were done. These were followed by a space-time scan statistic for the whole study period and by year to detect the high risk clusters based on a discrete Poisson model. Results: The annual incidence rate of HFMD in Guangxi increased whereas the severe cases peaked in 2010 and 2012. EV71 and CoxA16 were alternating viruses. Both HFMD cases and severe cases had a seasonal peak in April to July. The spatio-temporal cluster of HFMD cases were mainly detected in the northeastern, central and southwestern regions, among which three clusters were observed in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin city and their neighbouring areas lasting from 1.2 to 2.5 years. The clusters of severe cases were less consistent in location and included around 40-70% of all severe cases in each year. Conclusions: Both HFMD cases and severe cases occur in spatio-temporal clusters. The continuous epidemic in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin cities and their neighbouring areas and the clusters of severe cases indicate the need for further intensive surveillance. © 2014 Xie et al.


Xie Y.H.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Xie Y.H.,Prince of Songkla University | Xie Y.H.,Ministry of Public Health | Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Intra-home and kindergarten transmissions were the reported major modes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) transmission in preschool children. However, infection at home is not common and 65-80% of cases do not attend preschool. We conducted a matched case-control study to explore the role of public playgrounds in the transmission of HFMD in addition to direct and indirect exposure to HFMD patients. We used 156 hospital source cases and 156 community source controls. Univariate analysis was followed by conditional logistic regression with attributable fraction computed. Adjusted odds ratios were 11·70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·26-109·40] for having HFMD cases in the same class, 14·19 (95% CI 3·55-56·74) for having HFMD cases within the 20 nearest neighbourhoods, 6·03 (95% CI 2·84-12·80) for exposure to public playgrounds, 2·13 (95% CI 1·05-4·32) for finger sucking and 0·29 (95% CI 0·11-0·78) for hand washing with soap before meals. The attributable fractions for the first four risk factors were 6·4%, 20·9%, 57·2% and 27·5%, respectively, while the population prevented fraction for hand washing with soap before meals was 18·7%. Based on our findings, hand washing with soap should be advocated. Health education could include topics which underline the precautions which need to be taken and the advice given regarding avoiding the use of public playgrounds during epidemic periods, especially when children have been getting sick. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.


Zeng X.,Medical Scientific Research Center | Zeng X.,Guangxi Medical University | Yin F.,Medical Scientific Research Center | Liu X.,Guangxi Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2014

E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3), a member of the E2F transcription factor family and a member of the genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, is an oncogene with strong proliferative potential. E2F3 is involved in many processes and plays important roles in the development of several types of cancer, while its relationship with prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be reported. In the present study, based on 4 independent microarray data sets which covered 385 cases of HCC and 327 cases of normal livers retrieved from the Oncomine database, we demonstrated that E2F3 was upregulated at least 1.5-fold and on average 2.3-fold in HCC when compared with normal controls. Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis consisting of protein-protein interaction, gene co-occurrence, microRNA-mRNA interaction and biological process annotation indicated that E2F3 interacted with a large number of genes, proteins and microRNAs which were all associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC and other types of cancer, suggesting that E2F3 may also serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis. Taken together, for the first time, we show that the overexpression of E2F3 may be associated with unfavorable prognosis in HCC.


Tan D.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Deng L.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Wang M.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Li X.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2015

A molecular epidemiological study of Norovirus (NoV) infections in children aged <5 years was conducted in the outpatient department of a hospital between January 2010 and December 2011 in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Fecal samples were collected from 354 pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis, and were screened for the presence of NoV with one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). NoV genogroup II (GII) was detected in 28.5% (101/342) of samples, but no NoV GI was found. Eighty-four of the NoV GII strains were successfully sequenced, and they were clustered into seven genotypes: GII.4 (77.4%), GII.2 (8.3%), GII.14 (4.8%), GII.7 (3.6%), GII.3 (2.4%), GII.6 (2.4%), and GII.12 (1.2%). The predominant GII.4 variant in circulation was variant 2006b (92.3%). Importantly, the emergence of variant GII.4 2010 was detected. NoV was detected throughout the year, but mainly during the cold months. The highest prevalence of NoV was detected in young children aged <2 years. The NoV detection rates did not differ significantly in males and females. This is the first report to demonstrate the high prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Nanning. Our study findings indicate the need for continual surveillance to monitor epidemiological changes and potential new variants of these viruses. J. Med. Virol. 87:498-503, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..


Tang Y.,Hubei University of Medicine | Tang Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Zheng S.-J.,Hubei University of Medicine | Qi C.-B.,Hubei University of Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

(Chemical Equation Presented) Cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5-mC) in genomic DNA is an important epigenetic mark that has regulatory roles in diverse biological processes. 5-mC can be oxidized stepwise by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins to form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), which constitutes the active DNA demethylation pathway in mammals. Owing to the extremely limited contents of endogenous 5-mC oxidation products, no reported method can directly determine all these cytosine modifications simultaneously. In the current study, we developed selective derivatization of cytosine moieties with 2-bromo-1-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-ethanone (BDAPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of these cytosine modifications in genomic DNA. The chemical derivatization notably improved the liquid chromatography separation and dramatically increased detection sensitivities of these cytosine modifications. The limits of detection (LODs) of the derivatives of 5-mC, 5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC were 0.10, 0.06, 0.11, and 0.23 fmol, respectively. Using this method, we successfully quantified 5-mC, 5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC in genomic DNA from human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The results demonstrated significant depletion of 5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC in tumor tissues compared to tumor-adjacent normal tissues, and the depletion of 5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC may be a general feature of CRC; these cytosine modifications could serve as potential biomarkers for the early detection and prognosis of CRC. Moreover, the marked depletion of 5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC may also have profound effects on epigenetic regulation in the development and formation of CRC. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Fang Z.-L.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Harrison T.J.,University College London | Yang J.-Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | Chen Q.-Y.,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

The Chinese national goals for control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were to achieve a prevalence of HBsAg below 7% for the entire population, and 1% for children under 5-year old, by 2010. To determine whether Guangxi, a multi-minority province with a low socio-economic status and a very high prevalence of HBV, achieved this goal, a seroepidemiological survey of HBV infection was carried out using stratified, random cluster sampling. The results show that the overall prevalence of HBsAg is 9.16% [95% confidence interval (CI)=8.32-10%]. The prevalence in males (10.96%, 95% CI=9.64-12.28%) is significantly higher than in females (7.71%, 95% CI=6.64-8.78%; χ 2=10.5923, P<0.05). The prevalence in children under 5-year old is 3.62% (95% CI=0.60-6.64%) and increases with age. The prevalence of HBsAg in non-immunized individuals is significantly higher than in those immunized completely, although not within 24hr of birth (χ 2=31.426, P<0.05); a significant difference was found in those below the age of 20 years but not in older persons. Gender, age, immunization history, and familial HBsAg carriers are risk factors for infection. In conclusion, this study indicates that Guangxi has not reached the goal for the control of HBV infection. Catch-up HBV immunization may not protect adults effectively against infection in highly endemic regions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Guangxi Medical University, National Institute of Parasitic Disease and Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins.

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