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Li D.,Wuhan University | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Tian F.,Tiandong County Museum | Liao W.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Stone bark cloth beaters are considered part of the archaeological package that is considered to be associated with the Austronesian expansion from southern China across the Pacific. Here, we present evidence from the Dingmo Site in Bubing basin in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China of a bark cloth beater excavated in situ from a stratigraphic layer AMS dated to 7898±34BP. Based on current evidence, the Dingmo bark cloth beater is ~1300 years older than the previously reported oldest bark cloth beater from the Xiantouling Site in Shenzhen, Guangdong. The implications of this new finding are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Huang X.,Youjiang District | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2014

The Bose (also Baise) Basin in Guangxi, southern China is well known for the presence of Paleolithic bifacially worked implements. The Bose Basin handaxes came to the attention of the international scientific community primarily for two reasons: 1) the age at 803 ka (thousands of years), places it at the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition; and 2) the presence of bifaces tests the validity of the Movius Line and whether it was time to simply discard the model. However, questions were almost immediately raised because the age was based on the supposed association of Australasian tektites that may or may not have been redeposited, and at the time of the initial publications all of the Bose Basin handaxes were surface collected. Thus, whether the Bose bifaces can necessarily be associated with the tektites and whether the tektites themselves were redeposited are important considerations. Here, we report the findings from recent excavations from the Fengshudao site located in the Bose Basin. The primary findings are: 1) the in situ excavation of tektites, which do not appear to have been redeposited, in association with bifaces from one stratigraphic level from one site indicates that the age of these stone tools should be around 803 ka; 2) the Fengshudao hominins were utilizing locally-available quartz, quartzite, and sandstone river cobbles; and 3) in a number of aspects, the Fengshudao handaxe morphology differs from the typical western Acheulean, and are quite large and thick compared with even the bifaces from other regions of eastern Asia (e.g., Luonan Basin, China; Imjin/Hantan River Basins, Korea). Although Fengshudao may be a case of western Acheulean hominins dispersing into the Bose Basin from nearby South Asia, it is quite possible that the Fengshudao bifaces can be considered an example of convergent evolution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Liao W.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Li D.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Tian F.,Tiandong County Museum
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

The Mohui fauna, associated with Gigantopithecus blacki, has been recovered from the Pleistocene karst cave deposit in Bubing Basin, Guangxi, South China. The large-mammalian assemblage derives from 28 species, 15 of which have no historic descendants. Occurrence of some ancient species implies that this fauna is early Early Pleistocene, such as Hystrix magna, Sinomastodon yangziensis, Stegodon huananensis, Ailuropoda microta, Pachycrocuta licenti, Tapirus sanyuanensis, Hespertherium sp., and Dorcabune liuchengense. Comparisons to already-dated early Pleistocene faunas in South China, combined with preliminary paleomagnetic, electron spin resonance (ESR) and U-series analysis of this cave, indicate mammalian fauna age around 1.7 Ma. Comparisons to five faunal assemblages in the same basin show species-level differences in Ailuropoda, Stegodon, Hystrix, Tapirus, and Sus, implying the large-mammal fauna has passed through a slow process of evolution during the Quaternary in East Asia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Huang S.,Wuhan University | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

Paleolithic stone artifacts, including bifacial handaxes, are extensively distributed in the Bose basin, an area of about 800 km 2. Previous surveys and excavations identified about 57 Paleolithic sites in the basin. Unfortunately, the understanding of the basin-scale distribution of Paleolithic sites was still incomplete due to the lack of systematic archaeological field investigations. Thus, from 2009 to 2010, a comprehensive investigation of the distribution of Paleolithic sites across the entire basin was conducted. As a result, 56 new localities were identified, which brought the total number of Paleolithic sites in the basin to 113. These discoveries provide more integrated data on early hominin behavior during the Middle Pleistocene in the basin. In general, the site and artifact densities decline when moving from northwest to southeast along the Youjiang River inside the basin. A total of 747 stone artifacts, including 65 handaxes, were surface collected during these field surveys. Handaxes are found in higher densities in the northwest part of the basin, whereas they are rare in the southeast. Utilized raw materials also vary between the two regions within the basin. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Xu G.,Guangxi Mechanical and Electronic Industry School | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Mo Z.,Guangxi Mechanical and Electronic Industry School
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The Paleolithic stone tool industry from the Bose Basin (Guangxi, China) is best known for the presence of Acheulean-like bifacially and unifacially-worked handaxes found in the same horizon with tektites dated to 803,000 BP. One point that is often not included in discussion of the Bose lithics is the variability in the distribution of sites and artifacts across the basin. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the spatial distribution of the lithics and sites in the Bose Basin based on a multidisciplinary approach utilizing geomorphological observations, Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and computer graphics. Analyses include data collected during a comprehensive systematic archaeological field survey conducted in the basin between 2009 and 2010. The results indicate that the density of sites and stone artifacts per site decrease when moving from the northwest to the southeast. Perhaps the most interesting finding is that the handaxes are concentrated in only certain areas of the basin, a pattern similar to the typical western Old World Acheulean, rather than the Oldowan, where the artifact types appear to be more evenly distributed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Zhao J.,University of Queensland | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

We present two previously unreported hominin permanent teeth [one right upper second molar (M2), one left lower second molar (m2)] from Lunadong ("dong"="cave"), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The teeth are important because: 1) they were found in situ; 2) at least one (M2) can be confidently assigned to modern Homo sapiens, while the other (m2) is likely modern H.sapiens; and 3) the teeth can be securely dated between 126.9±1.5ka and 70.2±1.4ka, based on multiple MC-ICP-MS uranium-series dates of associated flowstones in clear stratigraphic context. The Lunadong modern H.sapiens teeth contribute to growing evidence (e.g., Callao Cave, Huanglongdong, Zhirendong) that modern and/or transitional humans were likely in eastern Asia between the crucial 120-50ka time span, a period that some researchers have suggested no hominins were present in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Zhang Y.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Jin C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Cai Y.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Kono R.,National Museum of Nature and Science | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Gigantopithecus blacki is a typical member of the Stegodon-Ailuropoda faunal complex (sensu lato) that inhabited southern China or, more broadly, mainland Southeast Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. Current evidence indicates that the giant ape became extinct during the Middle Pleistocene. Recently, new remains of Gblacki and associated mammalian fossils have been unearthed from a karst cave site, Hejiang Cave, in Chongzuo City, Guangxi, South China. The age of the Gigantopithecus-bearing depositional unit is estimated to be 400-320ka using 230Th-234U disequilibrium U-series dating of flowstone samples bracketing the deposits. These finds document the latest occurrence of Gigantopithecus and provide potential insights regarding its extinction. Comparisons of dental dimensions between the Hejiang G. blacki remains, more than four hundred isolated teeth from Early Pleistocene localities, and over ninety isolated teeth from local drugstores show that the Hejiang teeth are slightly larger in their buccolingual dimensions. In addition, the crowns of the three unerupted upper premolars differ from those of all of the other Gigantopithecus material in having more complex crenulations. The differences in dental dimensions and morphology are possibly reflective of dietary responses to environmental changes that eventually led to the extinction of Gigantopithecus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Lycett S.J.,University of Kent | von Cramon-Taubadel N.,University of Kent | Jin J.J.H.,POW Inc | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Alleged differences between Palaeolithic assemblages from eastern Asia and the west have been the focus of controversial discussion for over half a century, most famously in terms of the so-called 'Movius Line'. Recent discussion has centered on issues of comparability between handaxes from eastern Asian and 'Acheulean' examples from western portions of the Old World. Here, we present a multivariate morphometric analysis in order to more fully document how Mid-Pleistocene (i.e. ~803 Kyr) handaxes from Bose Basin, China compare to examples from the west, as well as with additional (Mode 1) cores from across the Old World. Results show that handaxes from both the western Old World and Bose are significantly different from the Mode 1 cores, suggesting a gross comparability with regard to functionally-related form. Results also demonstrate overlap between the ranges of shape variation in Acheulean handaxes and those from Bose, demonstrating that neither raw material nor cognitive factors were an absolute impediment to Bose hominins in making comparable handaxe forms to their hominin kin west of the Movius Line. However, the shapes of western handaxes are different from the Bose examples to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, the handaxe assemblages from the western Old World are all more similar to each other than any individual assemblage is to the Bose handaxes. Variation in handaxe form is also comparatively high for the Bose material, consistent with suggestions that they represent an emergent, convergent instance of handaxe technology authored by Pleistocene hominins with cognitive capacities directly comparable to those of 'Acheulean' hominins. © 2012 Wang et al.


Shao Q.,Nanjing Normal University | Bahain J.-J.,French Natural History Museum | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Zhu M.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2015

Several caves of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China, have delivered Gigantopithecus blacki remains, an extinct Pleistocene giant ape, in association with abundant mammalian faunas. To determine their geological ages, fossil teeth from Mohui and Sanhe Caves were dated using the coupled ESR/U-series method. The teeth from Mohui Cave gave age estimates of 1.69 ± 0.22 Ma and 1.29 ± 0.11 Ma. The Sanhe Cave samples had age estimates ranging from 910 ± 200 ka to 600 ± 150 ka with error weighted mean ages of 890 ± 130 ka and 720 ± 90 ka for the layers 5 and 4, respectively. Our results and previous paleomagnestism data place the Gigantopithecus fauna at Mohui Cave between Olduvai and Jaramillo subchrons and suggest that it was coeval with Chuifeng, Longgupo and Liucheng assemblages. The Sanhe fauna is younger, of late early Pleistocene age, and can be dated to the period between Jaramillo subchron and B/M boundary. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Guangxi Museum of Nationalities, New York University, CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, National Museum of Nature and Science and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of human evolution | Year: 2015

Previous analyses of dental size in Gigantopithecus blacki indicated marked sexual dimorphism and a trend towards increasing size through time. These studies were based on a sample of over 700 teeth from five localities excavated prior to 1990. Since then, 12 additional cave sites have been discovered in southern China, yielding hundreds of isolated teeth of G. blacki. Most of these sites are well dated by a combination of biochronology and absolute dating methods, so we now have a much better understanding of the chronology of G. blacki. Here, we reexamine the degree of sexual dimorphism and the question of dental size increase through time in G. blacki based on the expanded collections now available. Our results show that sexual dimorphism is not as marked as indicated in previous studies and confirm earlier analyses suggesting that the postcanine teeth of G.blacki tend to become larger through time from the beginning of the Early Pleistocene to the Middle Pleistocene.

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