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Zhou Q.,Guangxi Normal University | Zhou Q.,Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environment Engineering | Tang X.,Guangxi Normal University | Tang X.,Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environment Engineering | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology

Ranging behavior is an important aspect of animal behavior that researchers use to investigate ecological influences on individual behavior. We studied the influence of diet, water resources, and sleeping sites on the ranging behavior of 2 groups of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) in a limestone habitat at Fusui Nature Reserve, China, between August 2007 and July 2008. During the study period, the total home range sizes for the 2 focal groups were 23.8 ha and 33.8 ha, the mean daily path lengths were 491 m and 512 m, and leaves accounted for 83.4% and 91.0% of the diet, which are well within the range of variation reported for other Trachypithecus. One focal group traveled significantly longer distances in the rainy season months than in the dry season months. This variation may be related to the seasonal difference in food availability and diet. The langurs did not use their home ranges uniformly, and 50% of their activities occurred within 11% (group 1) and 20% (group 2) of their home ranges. The most heavily used quadrats in the home ranges were located near the most frequently used sleeping sites. Moreover, the core areas (>70% of location records) of both groups' home ranges included ≥1 permanent water pool. The langurs ventured to these pools for drinking when surface water became scarce in the dry season. These results suggest that sleeping sites and water scarcity may be significant influences on the ranging behavior of white-headed langurs in limestone habitat. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Zhou Q.,Guangxi Normal University | Zhou Q.,Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environment Engineering | Zhou Q.,Shaanxi Normal University | Huang H.,Guangxi Normal University | And 9 more authors.
Acta Theriologica Sinica

We collected behavioral data from a group of white-headed langurs ( Trachypitheucs leucocephalus) between August 2007 and July 2008 at Fusui Rare Animal Reserve, Guangxi Province, China using the instantaneous scan sampling method. Our goal is to investigate the influences of temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and food resources on diurnal activity budgets of white-headed langurs. Our results indicated that white-headed langurs showed morning and afternoon feeding peaks, with a midday resting peak in accordance of changes of diurnal ambient temperature. There were marked seasonal changes in activity cycles ; more time was spent resting in the midday resting peak in the rainy season than in the dry season. On the contrary, there was a minor midday feeding peak in the dry season. Langurs spent ca. 46. 4% of their daytime resting, 29. 0% moving, 20. 3% feeding, 4. 3% for other behaviors. Their activity budgets varied seasonally : the langurs spent more time in moving + feeding and less time on resting in the dry season than in the rainy season. There were significant correlations between the monthly percentage of time spent on various main activities and the monthly proportion of young leaves and mature leaves, in the diet. Source

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