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Chen J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Cao J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Wang J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Jia R.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

Fluoride is ubiquitously distributed in natural waters. Elevated fluoride may cause histopathological changes and induce oxidative stress in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study further evaluates the effects of fluoride on growth performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements of C. carpio. The results showed that food intake, growth, serum osmolality, body composition, and biochemical measures in the blood were affected by fluoride. Weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the exposed fish decreased compared with those of the control fish. Levels of crude protein and crude lipids were reduced in the fluoride-exposed fish. The major ion levels in the sera of fluoride-exposed fish were severely disturbed, resulting in a lower osmolality. All the biochemical parameters measured in the blood were affected by the exposure to fluoride. Total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose in fish exposed to 63.6mg/L, 77.7mg/L, and 124.4mg/L were lower than those in the control fish. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly increased in exposed fish compared with control. Taken together, the data showed that exposure to fluoride caused a suite of detrimental effects in C. carpio, which might lead to a decrease in growth and food utilization efficiency. The results of the present study indicated that high levels of fluoride could pose a threat to carp in the field. © 2013 SETAC.

Wu X.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Gao M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang L.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Luo Y.,Guangxi Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2014

Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037. μg/g ww in fish to 3.4. μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. © 2014.

Cao J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Chen J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Wu T.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Gan X.,Guangxi Fisheries Research Institute | Luo Y.,Guangxi Fisheries Research Institute
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

The DM-domain gene family has at least eight members with conserved DNA-binding DM-domain, which encodes putative transcription factors related to the sexual regulator Dsx of Drosophila and Mab-3 of C. elegans. Although some of the DM genes are involved in sexual development, the function of most of these genes remains unclear. In this study, rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE) was used for the isolation of DMRT4 full-length cDNA from the ovary of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus. The full-length of DMRT4 cDNA was 1,571 bp, containing the 148 bp 5′-untranslated region, 193 bp 3′-untranslated region and 1,230 bp open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame (ORF) encoded a protein of 409 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 8.492 and a calculated molecular weight of 44.12 kDa. One conserved functional domain, DM-domain was identified in blue tilapia DMRT4. The DMRT4 full-length gene obtained from the blood was 1,741 bp, containing a 156 bp intron. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the amino acid sequences encoded by DMRT4 genes from different species had a high degree of sequence identity as revealed in phylogenetic tree constructed. Real-time quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression patterns of DMRT4 in different developmental stages and different tissues in Oreochromis aureus. DMRT4 mRNA was detected from early gastrulae stage during embryonic development, and maintained a considerable high level until 1 day post hatching. With the increase of age, enhanced DMRT4 mRNA was observed in ovary and brain. After 15 and 30 days, fries treated with 17β-estradiol had a significant increase in DMRT4 mRNA levels compared with the control fries (P < 0.05). DMRT4 was found to be expressed in the ovary and endbrain, thalamencephalon, pituitary, not detected in the liver, kidney, spleen, heart and muscle of adult fish. These results showed that the DMRT4 gene have potentially important roles in gonadal development and may have contributed to the functional endocrine axis. Our study provides fundamental understanding to the structure and functions of DMRT4 protein and the mechanisms of sex control in Oreochromis aureus. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Cao J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Chen J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Wang J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Jia R.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are the target organisms for fluoride pollution in the aquatic ecosystems. This study was conducted to evaluate oxidative stress, histopathological changes, apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax expression in the livers of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Our results showed that after 90. d of exposure, the inhibition of SOD, GSH activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of MDA levels in the liver tissues indicated that fluoride caused oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations showed that damages to the liver tissues and cell organelles in the liver tissues increased with exposure concentration. A positive correlation was observed between the apoptosis index and fluoride levels in the livers (r=0.995). There was a negative correlation between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-2/Bax (r=-0.98, r=-0.96). A positive correlation was showed between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bax (r=0.96) after 90. d of exposure. Our results suggested that the common carp could tolerate relatively high levels of fluoride but adverse effects of fluoride occurred in the livers of the fish after 90. d of exposure. The apoptosis of liver cells had an important causative role in the process of fluoride-induced pathological changes of liver. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhong H.,Guangxi University | Zhong H.,Guangxi Fisheries Research Institute | Zhou Y.,Guangxi Fisheries Research Institute | Zhou Y.,Changsha University | And 4 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

We profiled the expression of a group of proinflammatory immune genes, comprising TNFα-1, TNFα-2, IFN-γ, IL1β-1, IL1β-2, CCL-1, and CXCL-8 in liver, head kidney, gills, and spleen of goldfish, during the reproductive cycle and in response to injection of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Most genes showed higher expression during the breeding season in both sexes. However, activation of immune responses was much stronger in female goldfish. Injection with hCG, an analog of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is involved in numerous reproductive functions, markedly changed gene expression in most studied organs, in both male and female goldfish. Again, female goldfish were found to be more responsive than male goldfish. The strongest activation of these genes was seen 7 days post-injection; the effect was dose dependent with a lower dose being in general more effective. For several of the genes, the gills were the most responsive tissue and, in male goldfish, gills were often the only responsive tissue, suggesting an important immunological role for gills during breeding. The data suggest that increasing expression levels are regulated by LH arising during the breeding season, with greater sensitivity in female goldfish than in male goldfish. These data support an interaction between the innate immune system and the reproductive axis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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