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Nanning, China

Sun G.,University of Georgia | Sun G.,Jiangsu University | Wang S.,Jiangsu University | Hu X.,Center for Disease Control Chunzhou Branch | And 6 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

Aflatoxins and fumonisins are ubiquitous foodborne toxicants and the co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in human foods represents a significant public health concern, which has been strongly associated with human aflatoxicosis, neural tube defects, as well as many types of primary cancers. In this study the co-contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in food and human dietary exposure was investigated in residents of three different areas of China. A total of 209 food samples were measured for AFB1 and FB1. The median AFB1 levels were 13.5, 2.3 and 1.3 μgkg-1 and the median FB1 levels were 2.6, 0.4 and 0.3 μg kg-1 in corn samples collected from Huaian (a high-risk area for oesophageal cancer), Fusui (a high-risk area for liver cancer) and Huantai (a low-risk area for both oesophageal and liver cancers), respectively. The median level of AFB1 in plant oil of Fusui was the highest (52.3 μg kg-1) among all food samples analysed. Co-contamination of these two mycotoxins was found in corn, rice and wheat flour. Based on measured food consumption data, the averaged daily dietary intake of AFB1 was 0.397 μg (range=0.269-1.218 μg) in residents of Huantai, 1.723 μg (0.224-49.772 μg) in Huaian, and 2.685 μg (1.006-14.534 μg) in Fusui. The averaged FB1 daily dietary intake was 92.4 μg (range=55.0-362.1 μg) for residents of Huantai, 460.0 μg (83.2-2894.5 μg) in Huaian, and 138.6 μg (30.0-10,541.6 μg) in Fusui. These data suggest that the co-exposure to AFB1 and FB1 in residents of rural China may contribute to the aetiology of human chronic diseases in high-risk areas. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

He Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cui Y.,Guangxi Cancer Institute | Xu B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In the liver, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) maintains balanced iron metabolism. However, the mechanism that underlies greater BMP-6 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue than adjacent non-cancerous tissue is unclear. This study sought to investigate the epigenetic mechanisms of BMP-6 expression by analysing the relationship between the DNA methylation status of BMP-6 and the expression of BMP-6. Methods: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bisulphite sequencing PCR, the MethyLight assay, and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to examine BMP-6 methylation and mRNA expression levels. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue arrays to evaluate the BMP-6 protein level. Results: BMP-6 mRNA expression was approximately 84.09% lower in HCC tissues than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and this low level of expression was associated with a poor prognosis. Moreover, the hypermethylation observed in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues was correlated with the BMP-6 mRNA expression level, and this correlation was validated following treatment with 5-aza-CdR, a demethylation agent. In addition, BMP-6 DNA methylation was upregulated by 68.42% in 114 clinical HCC tissue samples compared to adjacent normal tissues, whereas the BMP-6 staining intensity was downregulated by 77.03% in 75 clinical HCC tissue samples in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, elevated expression of BMP-6 in HCC cell lines inhibited cell colony formation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that BMP-6 CpG island hypermethylation leads to decreased BMP-6 expression in HCC tissues. © 2014 He et al.

Li Y.,Guangxi Cancer Institute
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the important health problems worldwide, especially in China. Feasible and effective animal models of HBV infection in vivo are prerequisite for the HBV-related basic and clinical studies. Located in the highly prevalent region of HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the laboratory of Guangxi Cancer Institute has focused on the cause, pathogenesis and chemoprevention of HCC, and has started the work of establishing tree shrew (Tupaia) models of HBV infection in vivo since the early 1980s. This paper provides an overview of the research process, and highlights the new progress on the chronic infection of tree shrews after inoculated with HBV neonatally in vivo.

Xu L.,University of Georgia | Cai Q.,Texas Tech University | Tang L.,University of Georgia | Wang S.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Levels of serum and urinary sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So), the Sa/So ratio, and urinary-free fumonisin B1 (FB1) were determined in a cross-sectional study consisting of 43 adults in Huaian and 34 adults in Fusui, China. Home-produced corn had 100% contamination with FB1. There were 93.0% (40/43) of Huaian subjects and 52.9% (18/34) of Fusui subjects with daily FB1 intakes greater than 2 μg kg-1 body weight, which showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Levels of sphinganine and sphingosine and the Sa/So ratio were not correlated with levels of dietary exposure. The median level of the serum Sa/So ratio in Huaian subjects (0.41, range = 0.14-0.85) was significantly lower than that in Fusui subjects (0.78, range = 0.57-1.08) (p<0.01). The median level of the urinary Sa/So ratio was also significantly lower in Huaian subjects (0.31, range = 0.08-1.33) than in Fusui subjects (0.57, range = 0.03-2.52) (p<0.01). Urinary-free FB1 was detected in 83.7% (36/43) of Huaian samples and in 82.4% (28/34) of Fusui urine samples (p>0.05). However, the median level of urinary-free FB1 in Huaian subjects, 3.91 (range = 0.06-253.61)ng mg-1 creatinine, was significantly higher than 0.39 (range = 0.01-3.72)ngmg-1 creatinine found in Fusui subjects (p<0.01). These results suggest that urinary-free FB1 may be a potential biomarker for human fumonisin exposure, while further validation is needed in human epidemiological and intervention studies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Wang Q.,Guangxi Cancer Institute
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2012

To determine the methods for establishing an in vivo model of long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Seventy-seven neonate (1-3 days old) and 49 young adult (2 weeks to 1 year old) tree shrews were inoculated with different HBV sources (chronic hepatitis B (CHB) human patient serum, single or pooled; HBV-infected tree shrew serum, single only; HBV-infected HepG2.2.15 cells' culture medium supernatant; HBV genome-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells' culture medium supernatant) through various routes of injection (subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and direct liver via abdominal skin; adults also received intravenous and indirect liver via spleen). Serum and liver biopsies were collected from the animals at various time points post-inoculation for detection of HBV markers by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, time-resolved immunofluorescence, Southern blotting, dot blotting, immunohistochemistry, and microscopy. Among the neonatal group of tree shrews, six (7.8%) were confirmed as HBV-infected for more than 72 (up to 228) weeks after inoculation and another seven (9.1%) were suspected of persistent infections. None of the young adult tree shrews developed persistent infection. Inoculation with single-source serum from either CHB humans or tree shrews were responsible for the most cases of infections, and the subcutaneous injection produced more infections than the other inoculation routes. The most reliable methods of determining HBV infection status were detection of serum HBV immunoreactive markers and intrahepatic HBV DNA. In order to establish an in vivo model of CHB in the tree shrew, the animals should be inoculated in the neonatal period using subcutaneous injection.

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