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Ji G.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health | Ji G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ji G.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang Y.,Jinan University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Genistein, the major isoflavone in soybean, was recently reported to exert beneficial effects in metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of a dietary concentration of genistein on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrated that genistein effectively inhibited the LPS-induced overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In addition, the data also showed that genistein prevented LPS-induced decrease in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. These effects were obviously attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the dietary concentration of genistein is able to attenuate inflammatory responses via inhibition of NF-κB activation following AMPK stimulation. The data provide direct evidence for the potential application of low concentrations of genistein in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Ji et al.

Qin L.Y.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2010

To identify the pathogens what caused of root rot, it can provide method of theoretical gist of integrated pest management of these kinds of diseases in the future. Pathogens from rotten root of Sophora tonkinensis were isolated by tissue isolation. Their morphological characteristics were observed and rDNA-ITS sequence were sequenced, then analyzed by Blast in GenBank. Round colony in PDA medium. The aerial mycelium was thin, white, light gray and yellowish brown eustroma was on the surface of material. The surface of base material was flesh. Large number of small conidia ware oval, kidney-shaped, 8-16 microm x 2.5 -4 microm. And the large conidia just like Matt spore type, which had 3 to 5 septums. The length of rDNA-ITS of the fungi was 553 bp, which the ITS region sequences compared with the sequence of Fusarium solani (accession number: AB518683.1, AB470903.1, AB369488.1, AJ608989.1, GQ365154.1, EF152426.1), and Fusarium oxysporum (accession number: GQ922558.1, GQ922559.1, DQ452447.1) homology reached 99%. Combination of two identification methods,it arrived at the cause of root rot pathogen fungi was Fusarium solani.

Ma G.-X.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu X.-D.,Peking Union Medical College | Cao L.,Peking Union Medical College | Yuan J.-Q.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2012

Five new cassane-type diterpenes, neocaesalpin AA (1), neocaesalpin AB (2), neocaesalpin AC (3), neocaesalpin AD (4) and neocaesalpin AE (5), were isolated from Caesalpinia minax together with three known compounds, 12α-methoxyl,5α,14β-dihydroxy-1α,6α, 7β-triacetoxycass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide (6), spirocaesalmin (7) and magnicaesalpin (8). Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR, MS and CD analyses. Compounds 1-6 were tested against Hela, HCT-8, HepG-2, MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells and showed moderate cytotoxicity with ICvalues from 18.4 to 83.9 M. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

Lan M.S.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To study the chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extract from Blumea aromatica. Column chromatographic techniques were used for the isolation and purification. Spectroscopic techniques were used for the identification of structures. Seven compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of 80% alcohol extract of the whole plant, and their structures were identified as xanthoxylin(1), dibutyl phthalate(2), luteolin-3',4',7-trimethyl ether(3), rubiadin(4), eriodictyol(5), kaempherol(6), luteolin 7,3'-dimethyl ether(7). All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time. Among them, compounds 2,4 and 7 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

Xu Y.L.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To establish HPLC fingerprint of Gekko gecko. The relative retention time and relative peak area of exteacts of Gekko gecko were determine by HPLC to confirm proper chromatographic condition and obtain the data. Better distribution of relative retention time and relative peak area were shown under the chromatographic condition and the HPLC fingerprint was established. The established HPLC fingerprints of Gekko gecko can be used to identify Gekko gecko and its quality control.

Tang M.Q.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

The virus isolate H was identified by molecular biology,it was collected from Abelmoschus manihot plant showing leaf curl,yellow vein symptoms in Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant. The virus isolate H was observed in electron micrograph, and conformed detected by PCR using universal primer pair for the genus Geminivirus. The results indicated that all sequences homologous to the specific fragment belonged to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. There was the highest similarity shared 95% homology at nucleotide between the specific fragment and DNA-A of Emilia yellow vein virus isolates. These findings suggested that there was geminiviridea in Abelmoschus manihot, and the disease probably caused by Emilia yellow vein virus.

Qin L.Y.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9(Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum), M6 (Trichoderma viride) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43-2.72 times and 1.43-1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak; the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82.35% respectively, even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their inhibition indexes were both reached class I. The inhibition index and inhibition rate of K1 was respectively 46.36% and class IV. The Trichoderma spp. could cause S9 mycelium to appear some phenomenon just like fracture, constriction reduced, digestion, etc. which were observed under the microscope. Trichoderma harsianum and Trichoderma viride showed the further develop prospects in the fight against soil-borne disease on Chinese herbal medicines.

Sun G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xie F.,East Carolina University | Wen J.-F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Plant cell culture represents an alternative source for producing high-value secondary metabolites including paclitaxel (Taxol®), which is mainly produced in Taxus and has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can significantly increase the production of paclitaxel, which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. In cell culture, MeJA also elicits the accumulation of paclitaxel; however, the mechanism is still largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of paclitaxel production (7 days after MeJA addition), especially on paclitaxel biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated Taxus × media cells and obtained ∼ 32.5 M high quality reads, from which 40,348 unique sequences were obtained by de novo assembly. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with transcriptional regulation, DNA and histone modification, and MeJA signaling network. All the 29 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid backbone and paclitaxel were found with 18 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up-regulated changes of 9 genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transport and degradation of paclitaxel. Potential target prediction of miRNAs indicated that miRNAs may play an important role in the gene expression regulation following the elicitation of MeJA. Conclusions/Significance: Our results shed new light on the global regulation mechanism by which MeJA regulates the physiology of Taxus cells and is helpful to understand how MeJA elicits other plant species besides Taxus. © 2013 Sun et al.

Yuan G.-Q.,Guangxi University | Li Q.-Q.,Guangxi University | Qin J.,Guangxi University | Ye Y.-F.,Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant | Lin W.,Guangxi University
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

We determined that the methanol extract of Toxicodendron sylvestre could significantly inhibit Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro and in planta. One compound responsible for the antibacterial activity was isolated from the ethyl ether extract and identified as methyl gallate (MG) based on its 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data as well as mass spectroscopy. MG displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant-pathogenic bacteria, and strong inhibitory effects on the growth of plant-pathogenic oomycetes. The half inhibition concentration of MG on R. solanacearum was 8.3 mg/liter, which was tested by the agar dilution method. Disease control trials in planta showed that both natural and synthetic MG could effectively reduce the incidence of tomato bacterial wilt, and there was no significant difference between them in control efficacy. This is the first report on the use of MG for the control of a plant bacterial disease. Because of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and significant control efficacy on tomato bacterial wilt in planta, MG shows potential to be used as a bactericide to control plant bacterial wilt. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

PubMed | Hong Kong Baptist University, Chengdu University of Technology, Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant and Macau University of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine.To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicology of S. involucrata.An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information.The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the traditional clinical applications in Traditional Chinese Medicine and medicines. The possible mechanisms of S. involucrata in treating various cancers are revealed in the article, these include inhibition of cancer cells by affecting their growth, adhesion, migration, aggregation and invasion, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in cancer cells, hindrance of cancer cell proliferation, causing cytotoxicity to cancer cells and promoting expression of tumor suppressor genes. Dosage efficacy is found to be generally concentration- and time-dependent. However, studies on the correlation between particular chemical constituents and specific bioactivities are limited.In this review, we have documented the existing traditional uses of S. involucrata and summarized recent research into the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. involucrata. Many of the traditional uses have been validated by phytochemical and modern pharmacological studies but there are still some areas where the current knowledge could be improved. Although studies have confirmed that S. involucrata has a broad range of bioactivities, further in-depth studies on the exact bioactive molecules and the mechanism of action are expected. Whether we should use this herb independently or in combination deserves to be clarified. The exact quality control as well as the toxicology studies is necessary to guarantee the stability and safety of the clinic use. The sustainable use of this endangered resource was also addressed. In conclusion, this review was anticipated to highlight the importance of S. involucrata and provides some directions for the future development of this plant.

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