Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science

Nanning, China

Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science

Nanning, China
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Chen X.L.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Wang Y.H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Luo T.,Guangxi University
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Oxalis debilis, native to South America, is commonly known as pink woodsorrel and is an aggressive weed that has worldwide distribution. In China, O. debilis has long been introduced and cultivated as an ornamental, and has become naturalized. It also has pharmacological and therapeutic applications as it is rich in essential fatty acids like palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids and possesses important antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities (Badwaik et al. 2011). In March 2016, leaf spots were observed on ∼70% of O. debilis in a nursery (108°42′ E, 23°27′ N) in Shanglin County, Guangxi, China. Early symptoms appeared as small, circular, pale yellow spots. Spots enlarged and developed into irregular pale brown and necrotic lesions with well-defined margins. Brown pycnidia developed on symptomatic leaves, 150 to 220 μm in diameter; conidia were aseptate, hyaline, ellipsoid, and 3.5 to 8.5 × 2.2 to 3.0 μm. Five symptomatic leaves from different individual plants were excised into small pieces ∼5 mm, immersed in a solution containing 1% sodium hypochlorite for 1 to 2 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water, then plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and incubated at 28°C for 7 days. Isolates recovered from diseased plants had pycnidia and conidia consistent with those from diseased leaves. Three isolates, designated as Guangxi-1, Guangxi-2, and Guangxi-3, were identified as Phoma sp. based on their morphological characteristics (Boerema et al. 1975). Genomic DNA of the isolate Guangxi-1 was extracted and the sequences of rDNA-ITS, LSU, and TUB were amplified (Aveskamp et al. 2010). The resulting fragments were sequenced and deposited in GenBank (accession nos. KX758542, KY000557, KY000558), respectively. BLAST analysis showed that the sequence of ITS shared 99% homology with the corresponding sequence of Phoma sorghina (syn. Epicoccum sorghinum) in GenBank (KM507776), while the sequence of LSU had 99% homology with a sequence of P. sorghina (GU237978), and the sequence of the TUB had 99% homology with available sequences of P. sorghina (FJ427173, FJ427178). The fungus was identified as P. sorghina based on phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method inferred from the combined ITS-LUS-TUB sequences (Aveskamp et al. 2010). Pathogenicity tests were performed by spraying the leaves of cultivated healthy O. debilis with a suspension of conidia and mycelium (1 × 106 conidia/ml). Three plants were inoculated with each of the isolates (Guangxi-1, 2, and 3). Control plants were mock inoculated with sterile water. All plants were cultured at alternating temperatures of 26/18°C under a 12 h light/dark cycle and maintained at 80% humidity. Typical symptoms developed on inoculated leaves 7 days later, while control plants remained healthy. The tests were done twice with similar results. P. sorghina was consistently reisolated and confirmed from inoculated leaves. Phoma includes many plant pathogen species, some of which have led to significant economic losses (Aveskamp et al. 2010). To date, P. sorghina has been reported to cause leaf spot on tobacco and twisted leaf disease on sugarcane in China (Lin et al. 2015; Yuan et al. 2016). However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. sorghina causing leaf spot on O. debilis in China. © 2017, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Huang M.,Guangxi University | Yang L.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Qin H.,Guangxi University | Jiang L.,Guangxi University | Zou Y.,Hunan Agricultural University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

China needs to produce about 20% more rice by 2030 to meet the growing demand for food that will result from population growth and economic development. This is not an easy task with soil quality being one of the major limiting factors. Improving the recycling of organic manures can be an important step toward stabilizing and optimizing soil quality in crop production systems. Recently, the pyrolysis conversion of crop straw into biochar and using it as a soil amendment has begun to attract increasing attention in China. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 6 published studies with 11 field experiments to quantify the biochar amendment effect on soil quality and crop productivity in Chinese rice paddies. Our analysis showed that short-term application of biochar amendment had a positive effect on soil quality in rice paddies across a wide range of climates and soil types in China. However, the average effect of biochar amendment on rice yield was neutral. In contrast to biochar amendment, N fertilizer was less effective for improving soil quality but more effective for increasing rice yield. More interestingly, we found that biochar amendment had a positive effect on rice yield under N fertilizer application conditions, and there was a tight relationship between the effect of biochar amendment on rice yield and that on agronomic N use efficiency. The results lead us to conclude that further investigations are needed to determine (1) the long-term effect of biochar amendment on rice productivity, (2) the effect of biochar amendment on N uptake and metabolism in rice, and (3) the effect of biochar amendments produced from different feedstock and under different process conditions on soil quality and rice productivity in Chinese paddies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Huang M.,Guangxi University | Jiang L.,Guangxi University | Zou Y.,Hunan Agricultural University | Xu S.,Guangxi General Station of Agricultural Technology Extension | Deng G.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2013

No-tillage (NT) has revolutionized agricultural systems because it has potential benefits including soil conservation and reduced production costs though saving in fuel, equipment, and labor. Soil quality is of great importance in determining the sustainability of land management systems, and soil microbial properties are becoming increasingly used to assess the effect of farming practices on soil quality due to their quick response, high sensitivity, ecological relevance, and capacity to provide information that integrates many environmental factors. In China, research and application of NT have developed quickly since 1970s. Numerous studies have been conducted in this country to evaluate the effect of NT on soil microbial properties. From these studies, it is evident that NT can lead to an increase in soil microbial size or activity or both and a consequent increase in soil microbial biomass in upland cropping systems. However, there are still several issues that remain unaddressed or inadequately specified. Further investigations are needed (1) to determine the effect of NT on soil microbial diversity by using molecular biological techniques in both upland and rice-based cropping systems; (2) to fully understand the changes of soil microbial properties with NT in rice-based cropping systems, especially for double rice cropping systems; and (3) to clarify the relationship between rhizosphere microbial properties and crop growth in NT rice cropping systems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University | Gu M.,Guangxi University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Aluminum (Al) stress is a major factor limiting crop production. The primary symptom of Al toxicity is to inhibit root growth. Plant responses to Al require precise regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-23 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which promote the cleavage of target mRNAs. We have summarized some Al-responsive miRNAs identified, especially proposed the regulatory roles of miR319, miR390, miR393, miR319a.2, and miR398 in Al stress signaling network. The cross-talk between miRNAs and signaling pathways also has been discussed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University | Gu M.,Guangxi University
BioMetals | Year: 2014

Nitric oxide (NO) emerges as signalling molecule, which is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants. High mobility metal interferes with NO signaling. The exogenous NO alleviates metal stress, whereas endogenous NO contributes to metal toxicity in plants. Owing to different cellular localization and concentration, NO may act as multifunctional regulator in plant responses to metal stress. It not only plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, but serves as a long-distance signal. Through tight modulation of redox signaling, the integration among NO, reactive oxygen species and stress-related hormones in plants determines whether plants stimulate death pathway or activate survival signaling. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Li X.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Li X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guo W.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Ding J.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012

While a wide array of insects form symbiotic relationships with microbes, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are various and complex. In this study, we investigated the role that the mycangial fungus . Penicillium herquei plays in the development of the leaf-rolling weevil . Euops chinesis, which feeds on the knotweed . Fallopia japonica. The weevil inoculates the fungus during oviposition into a leaf-roll that it creates for its larvae. We found that removal of . P. herquei inocula from leaf-rolls significantly decreased the weevil's survival rate especially in the larval stage. Although inoculation with . P. herquei had no effect on the plant's lignin content, it significantly decreased the cellulose content of the knotweed leaves. . P. herquei also showed antibiotic properties against two fungi (. Rhizopus sp.) that attack the weevil's leaf-rolls. Our results suggest that the mycangial fungus may help alter leaf chemical components and protect against pathogens thus improve leaf-rolls for the development of . E. chinesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


He H.-Y.,Guangxi University | He H.-Y.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.-F.,Guangxi University | Gu M.-H.,Guangxi University | Li X.-F.,Guangxi University
Plant Science | Year: 2012

Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants. Whether NO reduces aluminum (Al) toxicity by regulating the levels of endogenous hormones in plants is still unknown. In this study, the effects of NO on Al tolerance and hormonal changes in the root apices of rye and wheat were investigated. Rye was more tolerant to Al stress than wheat according to the results of root elongation and Al content determined. Root inhibition exposed to Al was in relation to Al accumulation in the root apices. Al treatment decreased GA content and increased the values of IAA/GA and ABA/GA. Supplementation of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) reduced the inhibition of root elongation by increasing GA content and decreasing the values of IAA/GA and IAA/ZR under Al stress. NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) can reversed SNP alleviating effect on Al toxicity. However, the regulating patterns of NO on the values of ABA/GA, GA/ZR and ABA/(IAA. +. GA. +. ZR) were different between rye and wheat. The values of ABA/GA and ABA/(IAA. +. GA. +. ZR) increased in rye, but decreased in wheat. The change of GA/ZR value was opposite. These results suggest that NO may reduce Al accumulation in the root apices by regulating hormonal equilibrium to enhance Al-tolerance in plants, which effect is more remarkable in Al-sensitive wheat. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Zhan J.,Guangxi University | He L.,Guangxi University | Gu M.,Guangxi University
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signal molecule involved in multiple plant responses to environmental stress. In the recent years, the regulating role of NO on heavy metal toxicity in plants is realized increasingly, but knowledge of NO in alleviating aluminum (Al) toxicity is quite limited. In this article, NO homeostasis between its biosynthesis and elimination in plants is presented. Some genes involved in NO/Al network and their expressions are also introduced. Furthermore, the role of NO in Al toxicity and the functions in Al tolerance are discussed. It is proposed that Al toxicity may disrupt NO homeostasis, leading to endogenous NO concentration being lower than required for root elongation in plants. There are many evidences that pointed out that the exogenous NO treatments improve Al tolerance in plants through activating antioxidative capacity to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Most of the work with respect to NO regulating pathways and functions still has to be done in the future. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2014

As a key enzyme of heme degradation, heme oxygenase (HO) is essential in phytochrome chromophore synthesis, cell protection and stomatal regulation in higher plants. The activity or transcript of HO has been detected in many plant species. Arabidopsis HO1 (HY1), the first map-based cloning gene, could catalyze the transition of heme to carbon monoxide (CO) in vivo. In this review, we first describe HO1 is evolutionarily conserved through comparative analysis of different plants HO1 proteins. Then, we highlight the role of HO1 involved in plants responses to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cadmium, mercury, ultraviolet radiation, reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, and hematin. Based on the relationship analysis between nitric oxide, CO, and hydrogen peroxide, we proposed HO1 may be a central repeater for cross talk among them in plants. © 2013 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University
Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

Whether carbon monoxide (CO) exerts toxic or protective effect is dependent on the concentration and location of CO in animals. Similarly, it has been increasingly evident that CO also is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants, from seed germination and dormancy to stomatal closure to regulation of multiple environmental stresses. In this review, we focus on CO synthesis and the role of CO in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, cadmium and mercury. In general, abiotic stresses induce CO production in plants. CO can alleviate oxidative damage by improving the activities of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidant metabolism. In addition, cross talk between CO signaling and other signaling molecules including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also is discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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