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Li X.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Li X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guo W.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Ding J.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012

While a wide array of insects form symbiotic relationships with microbes, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are various and complex. In this study, we investigated the role that the mycangial fungus . Penicillium herquei plays in the development of the leaf-rolling weevil . Euops chinesis, which feeds on the knotweed . Fallopia japonica. The weevil inoculates the fungus during oviposition into a leaf-roll that it creates for its larvae. We found that removal of . P. herquei inocula from leaf-rolls significantly decreased the weevil's survival rate especially in the larval stage. Although inoculation with . P. herquei had no effect on the plant's lignin content, it significantly decreased the cellulose content of the knotweed leaves. . P. herquei also showed antibiotic properties against two fungi (. Rhizopus sp.) that attack the weevil's leaf-rolls. Our results suggest that the mycangial fungus may help alter leaf chemical components and protect against pathogens thus improve leaf-rolls for the development of . E. chinesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University | Gu M.,Guangxi University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Aluminum (Al) stress is a major factor limiting crop production. The primary symptom of Al toxicity is to inhibit root growth. Plant responses to Al require precise regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-23 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which promote the cleavage of target mRNAs. We have summarized some Al-responsive miRNAs identified, especially proposed the regulatory roles of miR319, miR390, miR393, miR319a.2, and miR398 in Al stress signaling network. The cross-talk between miRNAs and signaling pathways also has been discussed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Zhan J.,Guangxi University | He L.,Guangxi University | Gu M.,Guangxi University
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signal molecule involved in multiple plant responses to environmental stress. In the recent years, the regulating role of NO on heavy metal toxicity in plants is realized increasingly, but knowledge of NO in alleviating aluminum (Al) toxicity is quite limited. In this article, NO homeostasis between its biosynthesis and elimination in plants is presented. Some genes involved in NO/Al network and their expressions are also introduced. Furthermore, the role of NO in Al toxicity and the functions in Al tolerance are discussed. It is proposed that Al toxicity may disrupt NO homeostasis, leading to endogenous NO concentration being lower than required for root elongation in plants. There are many evidences that pointed out that the exogenous NO treatments improve Al tolerance in plants through activating antioxidative capacity to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Most of the work with respect to NO regulating pathways and functions still has to be done in the future. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Huang M.,Guangxi University | Yang L.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Qin H.,Guangxi University | Jiang L.,Guangxi University | Zou Y.,Hunan Agricultural University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

China needs to produce about 20% more rice by 2030 to meet the growing demand for food that will result from population growth and economic development. This is not an easy task with soil quality being one of the major limiting factors. Improving the recycling of organic manures can be an important step toward stabilizing and optimizing soil quality in crop production systems. Recently, the pyrolysis conversion of crop straw into biochar and using it as a soil amendment has begun to attract increasing attention in China. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 6 published studies with 11 field experiments to quantify the biochar amendment effect on soil quality and crop productivity in Chinese rice paddies. Our analysis showed that short-term application of biochar amendment had a positive effect on soil quality in rice paddies across a wide range of climates and soil types in China. However, the average effect of biochar amendment on rice yield was neutral. In contrast to biochar amendment, N fertilizer was less effective for improving soil quality but more effective for increasing rice yield. More interestingly, we found that biochar amendment had a positive effect on rice yield under N fertilizer application conditions, and there was a tight relationship between the effect of biochar amendment on rice yield and that on agronomic N use efficiency. The results lead us to conclude that further investigations are needed to determine (1) the long-term effect of biochar amendment on rice productivity, (2) the effect of biochar amendment on N uptake and metabolism in rice, and (3) the effect of biochar amendments produced from different feedstock and under different process conditions on soil quality and rice productivity in Chinese paddies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

He H.,Guangxi University | He H.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | He L.,Guangxi University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2014

As a key enzyme of heme degradation, heme oxygenase (HO) is essential in phytochrome chromophore synthesis, cell protection and stomatal regulation in higher plants. The activity or transcript of HO has been detected in many plant species. Arabidopsis HO1 (HY1), the first map-based cloning gene, could catalyze the transition of heme to carbon monoxide (CO) in vivo. In this review, we first describe HO1 is evolutionarily conserved through comparative analysis of different plants HO1 proteins. Then, we highlight the role of HO1 involved in plants responses to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cadmium, mercury, ultraviolet radiation, reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, and hematin. Based on the relationship analysis between nitric oxide, CO, and hydrogen peroxide, we proposed HO1 may be a central repeater for cross talk among them in plants. © 2013 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

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