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Yan M.,South China Agricultural University | Yan M.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,South China Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between endo-β-mannanase and leaf abscission, and response to wounding in soybean (Glycine max). An endo-β-mannanase gene GmMAN1 was cloned from the abscission zone in petiole explants, and was heterologously expressed in E. coli. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the fusion protein. The increases in activity, isoform numbers, and amounts of transcripts and proteins of GmMAN1 were found not only in the abscission zone but also in the non-abscission zone during petiole abscission in the explants, but not in these two tissues during leaf abscission artificially induced by ethephon treatment in the intact plants. The changes in endo-β-mannanase expression patterns in these two tissues were probably induced by the inherent mechanical wounding during the preparation of explants. When soybean plants were wounded by removing half of the leaf blade of the first pair of true leaves, the transcripts and proteins of GmMAN1 were induced in the leaves and stem, leading to the increases in enzyme activity and isoform numbers in them. It is concluded that the soybean endo-β-mannanase GmMAN1 is not associated with leaf abscission, but might be involved in the response to wounding. © 2012 Yan et al. Source

Liu C.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhao C.,Peking Union Medical College | Pan H.-H.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Kang J.,Peking Union Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2014

Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR (1H-1H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 μM, respectively. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Source

Li X.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Li X.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | Li X.,University of Toronto | Wu Q.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | And 15 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Sterols are the important active ingredients of fungal secondary metabolites to induce death of tumor cells. In our previous study, we found that ergosterol peroxide (5a, 8a-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol), purified from Ganoderma lucidum, induced human cancer cell death. Since the amount of purified ergosterol peroxide is not sufficient to perform in vivo experiments or apply clinically, we developed an approach to synthesize ergosterol peroxide chemically. After confirming the production of ergosterol peroxide, we examined the biological functions of the synthetic ergosterol peroxide. The results showed that ergosterol peroxide induced cell death and inhibited cell migration, cell cycle progression, and colony growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We further examined the mechanism associated with this effect and found that treatment with ergosterol peroxide increased the expression of Foxo3 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells. The upstream signal proteins pAKT and c-Myc, which can inhibit Foxo3 functions, were clearly decreased in HepG2 cells treated with ergosterol peroxide. The levels of Puma and Bax, pro-apoptotic proteins, were effectively enhanced. Our results suggest that ergosterol peroxide stimulated Foxo3 activity by inhibiting pAKT and c-Myc and activating pro-apoptotic protein Puma and Bax to induce cancer cell death. Source

Huang J.-G.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Huang J.-G.,Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. | Lv J.,Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. | Yu X.-T.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | And 7 more authors.
Modern Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The chemical composition, structure, and antiviral activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Inonotus obliquus was identified and analyzed. Inonotus obliquus is an edible and medical fungus with diverse and complex structures and a wide range of biological activities; in addition, this fungus has a low toxicity to humans and is rich in secondary metabolites. Inonotus obliquus fruit bodies were dried, ground, and sequentially extracted at room temperature using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. Ten compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Inonotus obliquus using various chromatographic techniques. Various modern spectroscopic methods of analysis and the data available in literature were used to identify the following compounds: betulin (1), inotodiol (2), 3-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al (3), 3β-hydroxytirucallic acid (4), ergosterol-5, 8-peroxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-5α, 8α-epidioxyergosta-6, 9, 22-triene (6), di(n-butyl) phthalate (7), 5-dehydroergosterol (8), pentacosanoic acid (9), and lignoceric acid (10). Among these, compounds 6 and 7 were isolated from Inonotus obliquus for the first time. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the isolated compounds 1~8 were also investigated. Compound 3 showed the strongest anti-HSV-1 activity, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 98 μM; on the other hand, compound 7 exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity, with a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 24 μM. This study provides a scientific basis for the future development of anti-HSV drugs from Inonotus obliquus. ©, 2015, South China University of Technology. All right reserved. Source

Wu Q.-P.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Xie Y.-Z.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Xie Y.-Z.,Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. | Deng Z.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | And 20 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Due to an altered expression of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors, aggressive cancer cells have an intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. This typically contributes to cancer recurrence after chemotherapy. microRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in both cell self-renewal and cancer development. Here we report that tumor cells transfected with miR-378 acquired properties of aggressive cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-378 enhanced both cell survival and colony formation, and contributed to multiple drug resistance. Higher concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs were needed to induce death of miR-378-transfected cells than to induce death of control cells. We found that the biologically active component isolated from Ganoderma lucidum could overcome the drug-resistance conferred by miR-378. We purified and identified the biologically active component of Ganoderma lucidum as ergosterol peroxide. We demonstrated that ergosterol peroxide produced greater activity in inducing death of miR-378 cells than the GFP cells. Lower concentrations of ergosterol peroxide were needed to induce death of the miR-378-transfected cells than in the control cells. With further clinical development, ergosterol peroxide represents a promising new reagent that can overcome the drug-resistance of tumor cells. © 2012 Wu et al. Source

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