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Fan W.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | Fan W.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhu X.,Guangdong Medical College | Wu L.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | And 4 more authors.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2015

Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent and widely used not only in operating rooms but also in the intensive care unit (ICU). Apart from its multiple anaesthetic advantages, the neuroprotective effect of propofol has been demonstrated in diverse models of neuronal injury. The effect of propofol results from activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, modulation excitatory amino acid transmitter system and protecting brain cells against oxidative stress. Moreover, propofol is able to supress apoptosis and inflammation and to regulate neuroprotection-associated proteins or ion homeostasis to act its neuroprotective effects. This review focuses on the research progress of the neuroprotective effects of propofol and its mechanisms of action to date. The implications for possible use for the clinical setting are also discussed. Source

Li X.,University of Sichuan | Ma Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ma Y.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | Wu X.,University of Sichuan | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potent stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteocyte secretion of IL-6 plays an important role in bone metabolism. Serotonin (5-HT) has recently been reported to regulate bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotonin on osteocyte expression of IL-6. The requirement for the 5-HT receptor(s) and the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in serotonin-induced IL-6 synthesis were examined. In this study, real-time PCR and ELISA were used to analyse IL-6 gene and protein expression in serotonin-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells. ERK1/2 pathway activation was determined by Western blot. We found that serotonin significantly activated the ERK1/2 pathway and induced IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in cultured MLO-Y4 cells. However, these effects were abolished by pre-treatment of MLO-Y4 cells with a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, RS127445 or the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. Our results indicate that serotonin stimulates osteocyte secretion of IL-6 and that this effect is associated with activation of 5-HT2B receptor and the ERK1/2 pathway. These findings provide support for a role of serotonin in bone metabolism by indicating serotonin regulates bone remodelling by mediating an inflammatory cytokine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Chen Z.,Queensland University of Technology | Mao X.,Queensland University of Technology | Mao X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Mao X.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | And 6 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The osteoimmunomodulatory property of bone biomaterials is a vital property determining the in vivo fate of the implants. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties is of great importance in triggering desired immune response and thus supports the bone healing process. Magnesium (Mg) has been recognized as a revolutionary metal for applications in orthopedics due to it being biodegradable, biocompatible, and having osteoconductive properties. However, Mg's high rate of degradation leads to an excessive inflammatory response and this has restricted its application in bone tissue engineering. In this study, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used to coat Mg scaffolds in an effort to modulate the detrimental osteoimmunomodulatory properties of Mg scaffolds, due to the reported favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties of β-TCP. It was noted that macrophages switched to the M2 extreme phenotype in response to the Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, which could be due to the inhibition of the toll like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. VEGF and BMP2 were significantly upregulated in the macrophages exposed to Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, indicating pro-osteogenic properties of macrophages in β-TCP modified Mg scaffolds. This was further demonstrated by the macrophage-mediated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). When BMSCs were stimulated by conditioned medium from macrophages cultured on Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly enhanced; whereas osteoclastogenesis was inhibited, as indicated by the downregualtion of MCSF, TRAP and inhibition of the RANKL/RANK system. These findings suggest that β-TCP coating of Mg scaffolds can modulate the scaffold's osteoimmunomodulatory properties, shift the immune microenvironment towards one that favors osteogenesis over osteoclastogenesis. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties can be a highly valuable strategy for the development or modification of advanced bone biomaterials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhao K.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhao K.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | Mai Q.-Q.,Peking University | Wang X.-D.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dentistry | Year: 2013

Objectives To systematically review clinical outcomes of different occlusal designs of complete dentures. Methods Using a various key words, an electronic search of clinical trials published in English and Chinese literature was performed from four databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CBM. Furthermore, a manual searching of the relevant journals and the bibliographies of reviews was performed. General satisfaction, masticatory ability, retention, and stability were major criteria for the evaluation of the outcomes. Studies met these criteria were selected for a full-text reading. The whole processes were performed by two reviewers independently. Results This systematic review started with 1030 articles, which were finally narrowed down to seven, according to the inclusion criteria. The following occlusal designs were included and analyzed: anatomic occlusion, balanced occlusion, canine guidance occlusion, lingualized occlusion, monoplane occlusion, and bilateral-balanced and canine-guided design. Three of the seven studies showed that lingualized occlusion had ratings of higher patients' satisfaction than other occlusion designs. On the other hand, the canine-guided occlusion dentures demonstrated equal or better clinical performances than bilateral-balanced dentures. Because of the heterogeneity and bias of the studies, it was not possible to analyze the data statistically. Conclusions Lingualized occlusion and canine-guided occlusion can be successfully applied in the fabrication of complete dentures. Canine guided occlusion has also been shown to be satisfactory. More well-controlled randomized trials are needed regarding canine-guided occlusion and the relationship between alveolar ridge resorption, different occlusal schemes and patient satisfaction. The conventional prosthodontic wisdom that complete dentures require a balanced occlusal design is not supported by the included literature. Clinical significance A suitable occlusal scheme would be a critical factor for a successful complete denture. However, there is no conclusive evidence to support which occlusal design is more appropriate for fabricating a successful complete denture. In occlusal design of conventional complete denture, lingualized occlusion can provide better clinical outcomes than other occlusal designs; meanwhile, canine-guided occlusion also can be used in clinic practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fan W.,Sun Yat Sen University | Fan W.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | Liu Q.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology | Zhu X.,Guangdong Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions involved in vasodilation, inflammation, oxidative stress, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. It has been demonstrated that intravenous and volatile anesthetics (such as propofol, ketamine, midazolam, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, etc.) modulate NO production through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review focuses on the effects of different anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation in different disease conditions. Possible cellular mechanisms and intermediate role of NO/NOS in anesthetic-mediated organ protection are also discussed. It would be interesting to clarify the impact of anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation. This review gives an overview of the effects of different anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation and function in different physiologic and pathophysiologic states. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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