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Wang D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xia M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yan X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Li D.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 6 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

Rationale: We and others have demonstrated that anthocyanins have antiatherogenic capability. Because intact anthocyanins are absorbed very poorly, the low level of circulating parent anthocyanins may not fully account for their beneficial effect. We found recently that protocatechuic acid (PCA), a metabolite of cyanidin-3 to 0-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G), has a remarkable antiatherogenic effect. Objective:: To investigate whether mouse gut microbiota metabolizes Cy-3-G into PCA and to determine whether and how PCA contributes to the antiatherogenic potency of its precursor, Cy-3-G. Methods and Results: PCA was determined as a gut microbiota metabolite of Cy-3-G in ApoE mice, verified by the utilization of antibiotics to eliminate gut microbiota and further microbiota acquisition. PCA but not Cy-3-G at physiologically reachable concentrations promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages and macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. By conducting a miRNA microarray screening, we revealed that expression of miRNA-10b in macrophages can be reduced by PCA. Functional analyses demonstrated that miRNA-10b directly represses ABCA1 and ABCG1 and negatively regulates cholesterol efflux from murine-and human-derived macrophages. Further in vitro and ex vivo analyses verified that PCA accelerates macrophage cholesterol efflux, correlating with the regulation of miRNA-10b-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade, whereas Cy-3-G consumption promoted macrophage RCT and regressed atherosclerotic lesion in a gut microbiotaendependent manner. Conclusions:: PCA, as the gut microbiota metabolite of Cy-3-G, exerts the antiatherogenic effect partially through this newly defined miRNA-10b-ABCA1/ ABCG1-cholesterol efflux signaling cascade. Thus, gut microbiota is a potential novel target for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Wang D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wei X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yan X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jin T.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Polyphenols, including anthocyanins, from various plant foods are effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis in animal and human studies. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanins, has been found to possess the anti-carcinogenic effect, whereas the in vivo effect of PCA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent remains unknown. We demonstrated herein that PCA inhibited monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-activated mouse aortic endothelial cells, associated with the inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. Furthermore, PCA inhibited the nuclear content of p65, a subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), along with reduced NF-κB binding activity. Finally, PCA administration in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mouse model reduced aortic VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, NF-κB activity, and plasma-soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels, with inhibiting atherosclerosis development. We suggest that PCA possesses the anti-atherogenic effect at least partially via its anti-inflammatory activity. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zou T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yang Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yan X.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Polyphenols, including anthocyanins, from various plant foods are effective in reducing the severity of atherosclerosis in animal and human studies. Due to the poor understanding of the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the potential antiatherogenic mechanisms underlying the action remain largely unknown. Herein, we found that oral gavage of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) could be transformed into protocatechuic acid (PCA), and the plasma maximal levels of Cy-3-G were 3.7-fold lower than that of PCA in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. Subsequently, we observed that PCA treatment has a higher capacity than Cy-3-G treatment in decreasing CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression in the mouse peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs), along with reducing the mouse PBMs chemokine toward CC ligand-2 (CCL2) in a Boyden chamber. Interesting, in the ApoE-deficient mouse model, orally gavaged with Cy-3-G has a higher ability than gavaged with PCA to reduce CCR2 expression in PBMs. PBMs deprived from the Cy-3-G-treated ApoE-deficient mice have a lower ability than those from PCA-treated animals to migrate toward CCL2. Furthermore, as compared with the PCA group, Cy-3-G treatment more efficiently reduced thioglycollate-induced macrophage infiltration into the abdominal cavity. Thus, we suggest that Cy-3-G may reduce the monocyte infiltration in mice via down-regulation of CCR2 expression in monocytes, at least in part, with the aid of its metabolite PCA. These above data imply that the anti-monocyte/macrophage infiltration property of Cy-3-G and its metabolite PCA may be an important antiatherogenic mechanism for anthocyanins. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Guo H.,Shaoguan University | Ling W.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders | Year: 2015

With the dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) worldwide, there is an urgent need for new strategies to combat the growing epidemic of these metabolic diseases. Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for obesity and T2DM and it can either help or hurt. In searching for preventative and therapeutic strategies, it is therefore advantageous to consider the potential of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the pathogenic processes associated with metabolic disease. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds abundant in dark-colored fruits, vegetables and grains. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of T2DM. Many in vitro and in vivo studies also reveal an array of mechanisms through which anthocyanins could prevent or reverse obesity- and T2DM-related pathologies including promotion of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, improvement of insulin resistance, and hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic actions. Here, we summarize the data on anthocyanin-mediated protection against obesity and T2DM and the underlying mechanisms. Further population-based and long-term human intervention studies are necessary to ultimately evaluate the use of anthocyanins for protection/prevention against the development of obesity and T2DM. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Zou T.-B.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gan R.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ling W.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ling W.-H.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials. © 2011 by the authors.

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