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Gu H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gu H.,New York University | Mijares D.,New York University | Zhao Z.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2013

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of experimental calcium phosphate-based solutions (sCaP) containing fluoride (F), with and without zinc (Zn) ions on reducing susceptibility to acid dissolution and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) colonization of dentin surfaces.Methods: Dentin sections were treated with double distilled water (control) and with sCaP solutions differing in pH and in F- and/or Zn2+ ion concentrations. Solutions A (pH 7); B, C, and D (pH 5.5); solution C, twice Zn2+ and F- ion concentration compared to B; solution D is similar to C but without Zn2+. The dentin surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction, and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution was determined in acidic buffer. Bacterial (S. mutans) attachment and growth were evaluated using SEM and Bioquant. Statistical analyses applied analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple Range test.Results: Compared to control, dentin surfaces treated with sCaP solutions showed: (a) occluded dentin tubules; (b)reduced susceptibility to acid dissolution; and (c) Zn2+ ions were more effective than F- ions in inhibiting bacterial colonization.Significance: Acidic sCaP containing both F and Zn ions have mineralizing, acid resistance, and antibacterial effects and may be potentially useful as a strategy against dentin caries formation and progression. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Gu H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gu H.,New York University | Fan D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gao J.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZnCl 2 on plaque-growth and vitality pattern of dental biofilm and to determine the optimum zinc concentration for the inhibition of plaque formation. Design: Data were collected from nine volunteers for whom a special-designed acrylic appliance was prescribed after a careful dental check up. The volunteers rinsed twice daily for 2 min with ZnCl 2 of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mM as treatment and double distilled water (DDW) as control in respective assigned test weeks. The plaque index (PI) was assessed after 48 h of appliance wearing. The glass discs with the adhered biofilm were removed from the splints and stained with two fluorescent dyes. The biofilm thickness (BT) and bacterial vitality of the whole biofilm as well as the mean bacterial vitality (BV) of the inner, middle and outer layers of biofilm were evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Results: PI, BT and BV of biofilms treated by various concentrations of ZnCl 2 were reduced significantly when compared with the DDW group (p < 0.05). PI, BT and BV of the 2.5 mM ZnCl 2 group was significantly higher than groups of 5, 10, 20 mM ZnCl 2 (p < 0.05). The mean BV of the 3 layers (inner, middle and outer layers) showed that 2.5 mM ZnCl 2 was the lowest concentration to inhibit BV in the outer layer, 5 mM was the lowest concentration to extend this inhibition of BV to the middle layer, and none of the concentrations investigated in this study has shown any effect on bacteria inhibition in the inner layer. Conclusion: Zinc ions exhibited possible inhibitory effects on plaque formation, and have a promising potential to be used as an antibacterial agent in future dentifrices and mouthrinses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tu Y.S.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Sun D.M.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang J.J.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Jiang Z.Q.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microencapsulation | Year: 2014

Objective: In this study, a novel andrographolide (AG) preparation formulation, niosomes, was prepared to improve the bioavailability and tissue distribution of AG. Methods: The niosomal formulation of AG was prepared by film hydration/sonication method and tissue distribution was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method in mice, and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) activity was examined by MTT method in HepG2. Results: Entrapment efficiency, drug-loading ratio and average particle size of AG niosomes were 72.36%, 5.90% and 206 nm, respectively. The tissue distribution in mice demonstrated that the AG niosomes were absorbed in liver much more than the free AG. Furthermore, the anti-HCC activity in HepG2 cells showed that there was no significant difference between free AG and AG niosomes. Conclusion: The present results suggest that AG niosomes may have a significant potential of liver targeting, which is valuable in chemotherapy of HCC. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhao W.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Zhao Z.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Russell M.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2011

Intragastric (i.g.) immunization with recombinant chimeric proteins constructed from the saliva-binding region (SBR) of Streptococcus mutans surface antigen AgI/II and the A2/B subunits of enterobacterial heat-labile enterotoxins has been successfully used to induce salivary and circulating antibodies against S. mutans that have protective potential against dental caries. To investigate the mode of action of these vaccine constructs, mice were immunized i.g. with chimeric proteins constructed from SBR and cholera toxin (CT) or the type II enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) in Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were characterized by flow cytometry. Compared with immunization with SBR alone, chimeric proteins SBR-LTIIaA2/B and SBR-LTIIbA2/B increased the number of B cells and macrophages in PP and diminished B cell numbers in MLN, whereas SBR-CTA2/B diminished the numbers of B cells and macrophages in PP and MLN. Immunization with all three chimeric proteins led to upregulation of MHC class II molecules and co-stimulatory receptors CD40, CD80, and CD86 especially on dendritic cells in PP and also on APC in MLN. The results provide a molecular basis for the enhanced immune responses induced by chimeric proteins compared with uncoupled antigen, and for differential responses to chimeric proteins based on CT or type II enterotoxins. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Yao N.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | He R.-R.,Jinan University | Zeng X.-H.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Huang X.-J.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of apple polyphenols extract (APE) in Triton WR-1339-induced endogenous hyperlipidemic model. Methods: Firstly, APE was isolated and purified from the pomace of Red Fuji Apple and contents of individual polyphenols in APE were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Secondly, forty male National Institude of Health (NIH) mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 animals in each group. The Fenofibrate Capsules (FC) group and APE groups received oral administration of respective drugs for 7 consecutive days. All mice except those in the normal group were intravenously injected through tail vein with Triton WR-1339 on the 6th day. Serum and livers from all the mice were obtained 18 h after the injection. The changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were measured by respective kits. Finally, expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) mRNA was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results Serum TC and TG levels significantly increased in Triton WR-1339-induced model group compared with the normal group (P<0.01). Oral administration of APE [200 and 400 mg/(kg day)] dose-dependently reduced the serum level of TG in hyperlipidemic mice (P<0.01). Serum LPL and HTGL activities significantly decreased in Triton WR-1339-induced model group compared with the normal group (P<0.05). Oral administration of APE [200 and 400 mg/(kg day)] dose-dependently elevated the serum activity of LPL in hyperlipidemic mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the normal group, hepatic mRNA level of PPARα in the model group significantly decreased (P<0.01). Oral administration of APE [200 and 400 mg/(kg day)] dose-dependently elevated the expression of PPARα in hyperlipidemic mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01): Conclusion: APE could reduce TG level via up-regulation of LPL activity, which provides new evidence to elucidate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of APE. © 2012 Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zheng G.-Q.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zheng G.-Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | Zhao Z.-M.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Y.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: Scalp acupuncture (SA) is a commonly used therapeutic approach for primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), but the efficacy and safety of SA therapy are still undetermined. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SA therapy for the treatment of acute hypertensive ICH. Methods: Literature reports with randomized controlled clinical trials and controlled clinical trials on SA therapy for acute hypertensive ICH were searched, and the efficacy and safety of SA therapy were evaluated by using the Cochrane systematic review methods. The primary outcome measures were death or dependency at the end of long-term follow-up (at least 3 months) and adverse events. The secondary outcome measure was neurological deficit improvement at the end of the treatment course. Results: Seven (7) independent trials (230 patients) were included in this study. All trials described the methods of randomization in which four trials had adequate concealment of randomization at the level of grade A, but no trial included sham acupuncture as a control group. None of the trials included "death or dependency" as a primary outcome measure. Four (4) trials contained safety assessments and stated that no adverse event was found, whereas the other three trials did not provide the information about adverse events. By using random effects statistical model, it was found that patients with acute hypertensive ICH who received SA therapy had significantly improved neurological deficit scores (Z=4.97, p<0.01). Conclusions: Although SA therapy is widely used to treat acute hypertensive ICH in TCM, the efficacy and safety of SA therapy remain to be further determined. No evidence is available on whether SA therapy can be used to treat acute ICH according to the primary outcome measure. However, SA therapy appears to be able to improve neurological deficit in patients with acute hypertensive ICH. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Tu Y.S.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Sun D.M.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zeng X.H.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Yao N.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2014

It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.


PubMed | Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine | Year: 2014

It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.


PubMed | Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microencapsulation | Year: 2014

In this study, a novel andrographolide (AG) preparation formulation, niosomes, was prepared to improve the bioavailability and tissue distribution of AG.The niosomal formulation of AG was prepared by film hydration/sonication method and tissue distribution was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method in mice, and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) activity was examined by MTT method in HepG2.Entrapment efficiency, drug-loading ratio and average particle size of AG niosomes were 72.36%, 5.90% and 206nm, respectively. The tissue distribution in mice demonstrated that the AG niosomes were absorbed in liver much more than the free AG. Furthermore, the anti-HCC activity in HepG2 cells showed that there was no significant difference between free AG and AG niosomes.The present results suggest that AG niosomes may have a significant potential of liver targeting, which is valuable in chemotherapy of HCC.


PubMed | Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chinese journal of integrative medicine | Year: 2013

To investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of apple polyphenols extract (APE) in Triton WR-1339-induced endogenous hyperlipidemic model.Firstly, APE was isolated and purified from the pomace of Red Fuji Apple and contents of individual polyphenols in APE were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Secondly, forty male National Institude of Health (NIH) mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 animals in each group. The Fenofibrate Capsules (FC) group and APE groups received oral administration of respective drugs for 7 consecutive days. All mice except those in the normal group were intravenously injected through tail vein with Triton WR-1339 on the 6th day. Serum and livers from all the mice were obtained 18 h after the injection. The changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were measured by respective kits. Finally, expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) mRNA was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. RESULTS SERUM TC AND TG LEVELS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED IN TRITON WR-1339-INDUCED MODEL GROUP COMPARED WITH THE NORMAL GROUP (P<0.01). ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF APE [200 AND 400 MG/(KG DAY)] DOSE-DEPENDENTLY REDUCED THE SERUM LEVEL OF TG IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC MICE (P<0.01). SERUM LPL AND HTGL ACTIVITIES SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASED IN TRITON WR-1339-INDUCED MODEL GROUP COMPARED WITH THE NORMAL GROUP (P<0.05). ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF APE [200 AND 400 MG/(KG DAY)] DOSE-DEPENDENTLY ELEVATED THE SERUM ACTIVITY OF LPL IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC MICE (P<0.05 OR P<0.01). FURTHERMORE, COMPARED WITH THE NORMAL GROUP, HEPATIC MRNA LEVEL OF PPAR IN THE MODEL GROUP SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASED (P<0.01). ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF APE [200 AND 400 MG/(KG DAY)] DOSE-DEPENDENTLY ELEVATED THE EXPRESSION OF PPAR IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC MICE (P<0.05 OR P<0.01):APE could reduce TG level via up-regulation of LPL activity, which provides new evidence to elucidate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of APE.

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