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Zhao W.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Zhao Z.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Russell M.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2011

Intragastric (i.g.) immunization with recombinant chimeric proteins constructed from the saliva-binding region (SBR) of Streptococcus mutans surface antigen AgI/II and the A2/B subunits of enterobacterial heat-labile enterotoxins has been successfully used to induce salivary and circulating antibodies against S. mutans that have protective potential against dental caries. To investigate the mode of action of these vaccine constructs, mice were immunized i.g. with chimeric proteins constructed from SBR and cholera toxin (CT) or the type II enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) in Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were characterized by flow cytometry. Compared with immunization with SBR alone, chimeric proteins SBR-LTIIaA2/B and SBR-LTIIbA2/B increased the number of B cells and macrophages in PP and diminished B cell numbers in MLN, whereas SBR-CTA2/B diminished the numbers of B cells and macrophages in PP and MLN. Immunization with all three chimeric proteins led to upregulation of MHC class II molecules and co-stimulatory receptors CD40, CD80, and CD86 especially on dendritic cells in PP and also on APC in MLN. The results provide a molecular basis for the enhanced immune responses induced by chimeric proteins compared with uncoupled antigen, and for differential responses to chimeric proteins based on CT or type II enterotoxins. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Cao H.-J.,Jinan University | Cao H.-J.,CAS Shenzhen Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering | Tan R.-R.,Jinan University | He R.-R.,Jinan University | And 9 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Sarcandra glabra, as a type of antipyretic-detoxicate drugs, has always been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The Sarcandra glabra extract (SGE) is applied frequently as anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious drug in folk medicine. However, relative experiment data supporting this effective clinical consequence was limited. In order to mimic the physiological conditions of the susceptible population, we employed restraint stress mouse model to investigate the effect of SGE against influenza. Mice were infected with influenza virus three days after restraint, while SGE was orally administrated for 10 consecutive days. Body weight, morbidity, and mortality were recorded daily. Histopathologic changes, susceptibility genes expressions and inflammatory markers in lungs were determined. Our results showed that restraint stress significantly increased susceptibility and severity of influenza virus. However, oral administration of SGE could reduce morbidity, mortality and significantly prolonged survival time. The results further showed that SGE had a crucial effect on improving susceptibility markers levels to recover the balance of host defense system and inhibiting inflammatory cytokines levels through down-regulation of NF- κ B protein expression to ameliorate the lung injury. These data showed that SGE reduced the susceptibility and severity of influenza. © 2012 Hui-Juan Cao et al. Source


Gu H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gu H.,New York University | Fan D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Gao J.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZnCl 2 on plaque-growth and vitality pattern of dental biofilm and to determine the optimum zinc concentration for the inhibition of plaque formation. Design: Data were collected from nine volunteers for whom a special-designed acrylic appliance was prescribed after a careful dental check up. The volunteers rinsed twice daily for 2 min with ZnCl 2 of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mM as treatment and double distilled water (DDW) as control in respective assigned test weeks. The plaque index (PI) was assessed after 48 h of appliance wearing. The glass discs with the adhered biofilm were removed from the splints and stained with two fluorescent dyes. The biofilm thickness (BT) and bacterial vitality of the whole biofilm as well as the mean bacterial vitality (BV) of the inner, middle and outer layers of biofilm were evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Results: PI, BT and BV of biofilms treated by various concentrations of ZnCl 2 were reduced significantly when compared with the DDW group (p < 0.05). PI, BT and BV of the 2.5 mM ZnCl 2 group was significantly higher than groups of 5, 10, 20 mM ZnCl 2 (p < 0.05). The mean BV of the 3 layers (inner, middle and outer layers) showed that 2.5 mM ZnCl 2 was the lowest concentration to inhibit BV in the outer layer, 5 mM was the lowest concentration to extend this inhibition of BV to the middle layer, and none of the concentrations investigated in this study has shown any effect on bacteria inhibition in the inner layer. Conclusion: Zinc ions exhibited possible inhibitory effects on plaque formation, and have a promising potential to be used as an antibacterial agent in future dentifrices and mouthrinses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zheng G.-Q.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zheng G.-Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | Zhao Z.-M.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Y.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: Scalp acupuncture (SA) is a commonly used therapeutic approach for primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), but the efficacy and safety of SA therapy are still undetermined. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SA therapy for the treatment of acute hypertensive ICH. Methods: Literature reports with randomized controlled clinical trials and controlled clinical trials on SA therapy for acute hypertensive ICH were searched, and the efficacy and safety of SA therapy were evaluated by using the Cochrane systematic review methods. The primary outcome measures were death or dependency at the end of long-term follow-up (at least 3 months) and adverse events. The secondary outcome measure was neurological deficit improvement at the end of the treatment course. Results: Seven (7) independent trials (230 patients) were included in this study. All trials described the methods of randomization in which four trials had adequate concealment of randomization at the level of grade A, but no trial included sham acupuncture as a control group. None of the trials included "death or dependency" as a primary outcome measure. Four (4) trials contained safety assessments and stated that no adverse event was found, whereas the other three trials did not provide the information about adverse events. By using random effects statistical model, it was found that patients with acute hypertensive ICH who received SA therapy had significantly improved neurological deficit scores (Z=4.97, p<0.01). Conclusions: Although SA therapy is widely used to treat acute hypertensive ICH in TCM, the efficacy and safety of SA therapy remain to be further determined. No evidence is available on whether SA therapy can be used to treat acute ICH according to the primary outcome measure. However, SA therapy appears to be able to improve neurological deficit in patients with acute hypertensive ICH. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Tu Y.S.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Fu J.W.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Fu J.W.,Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine | Sun D.M.,Guangdong Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microencapsulation | Year: 2014

Objective: In this study, curcumin was designed into the nanoformulation called cubosome with piperine in order to improve oral bioavailability and tissue distribution of curcumin. Methods: The characteristic of the cubosome was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Infrared spectrum and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Tissue distribution of cubosome was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method in mice. Results: The characteristic of the cubosome was demonstrated that the curcumin and piperine were encapsulated in the interior of the cubosome and the crystal form was Pn3m space. The pharmacokinetic test revealed that the cubosome could improve the oral bioavailability significantly compared to the suspension of curcumin with piperine and be mainly absorbed by the spleen. Conclusion: These findings provide the reference to a preferable choice of the curcumin formulation and contribute to therapeutic application in clinical research. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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