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Zhao J.,University College LondonLondon | Farhatnia Y.,University College LondonLondon | Kalaskar D.M.,University College LondonLondon | Zhang Y.,Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Background The physio-chemical properties of blood contacting biomaterials play an important role in determining their hemocompatibility. It is shown in literature that surface roughness and porosity have significant effect on hemocompatibility. In this study, we use a biocompatible, low thrombogenic nanocomposite polymer called POSS-PCU to test this hypothesis: would porosity compromise the hemocompatibility of POSS-PCU. We compared the hemocompatibility of POSS-PCU films of various pore sizes with PTFE, which is a commercially available material used in most blood contacting devices. Methods Sterilized POSS-PCU films with different size pores were prepared as samples and porous PTFE film were selected as control. And all samples were subjected to SEM for topograpgy, mechanical test for characterization and hemocompatibility tests to evaluate contact activation, platelet adhesion and activation, as well as whole blood clotting response to the samples. Results WCA significantly increased with the pore size of POSS-PCU film, whereas both tensile stress and strain decreased significantly as the sizes of pores increased. However, when compared to PTFE film with same size pores, POSS-PCU films showed both higher tensile stress and strain. Pore size had little impact over POSS-PCU's surface chemistry groups as tested by FTIR analysis. Contact activation and platelet adhesion essay also showed no significant difference between different POSS-PCU samples. However, in whole blood reactions, POSS-PCU with pores size around 2-5 μm showed higher BCI than plain films and those with pores size around 35-45 μm. POSS-PCU showed lower thrombogencity and higher hemocompatibility comparing with porous PTFE on the aspects of platelet activation, adhesion and whole blood reaction. Summary and conclusions POSS-PCU polymer films as a biomaterial in chronic blood contacting implants show significant lower thrombogencity and higher hemocompatibility than porous PTFE film. It is desirable as a coating or covering material in small diameter stents for treating cardiovascular diseases, cerebral vascular diseases and peripheral arterial diseases. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li P.,Jinan University | Zhu W.-J.,Jinan University | Ma Z.-L.,Jinan University | Wang G.,Jinan University | And 4 more authors.
Human Reproduction

STUDY QUESTIONIs there a molecular link between Wnt signaling in fallopian tube inflammation and ectopic tubal implantation?SUMMARY ANSWEREnhanced beta-catenin expression, reduced E-cadherin expression and glycogen accumulation in the tubal epithelia and hyperplasia in tubal arteries were found in ectopic tubal pregnancy, consistent with the effects induced by Wnt signaling and inflammation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYChronic inflammation caused by infection can alter gene expression in the fallopian tube cells possibly leading to the development of ectopic pregnancy. Knockout mouse models have shown a relationship between Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and predisposition to tubal ectopic pregnancy.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWomen with ectopic tubal pregnancy (n = 18) were included in the case group, while women with chronic salpingitis (n = 13) and non-pregnant women undergoing sterilization procedures or salpingectomy for benign uterine disease (n = 10) were set as the controls. This study was performed between January 2012 and November 2012.PARTICIPANTS/ MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSThe ampullary segments of fallopian tubes were collected from patients. Tissues of tubal pregnancy were separated into implantation sites and non-implantation sites. Beta-catenin and E-cadherin expression were determined using immunohistological and immunofluorescence staining. Glycogen production was measured with periodic acid Schiff by staining. The diameter and wall thickness of tubal arteries were evaluated by histological analysis method.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEImmunohistological staining revealed that beta-catenin protein expression was 100% positive in the ectopic pregnant and inflamed tubal tissues, and the staining intensity was significantly higher than in non-pregnant tubal tissues. In contrast, E-cadherin expression was reduced in ectopic pregnant fallopian tubes, possibly as a consequence of increased Wnt signaling. Moreover, glycogen accumulated in the tubal cells, and hyperplasia was observed in the tubal arteries with ectopic pregnancy, which is consistent with the effects induced by Wnt signaling and inflammation. All these changes could create the permissive environment that promotes embryos to ectopically implant into the fallopian tube.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONThis finding requires a further confirmation about what activates Wnt signaling in ectopic tubal pregnancies. Also, it is generally recognized that Chlamydia infection is associated with ectopic pregnancy, and disturbs tubal epithelia via the Wnt signaling. However, the infection type in the samples used was salpingitis.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSA better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to ectopic pregnancies may contribute to our knowledge of the pathogenesis of tubal disorders and infertility and to the prevention of tubal ectopic pregnancy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

Li W.S.,Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM
Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion

To prove analgesia and sedative effect of adjuvant anesthesia with magnetic auricular point-sticking on abdominal gynecological operation and its effect on postoperative recovery of body function. Ninety-two patients with abdominal gynecological operation were randomly divided into 3 groups. The auricular point-sticking group (APS group, n=31) was pasted and pressed by plasters with magnetic beads at bilateral Shenmen, Pizhixia (subcortex), Zigong (uterus) and Penqiang (pelvic cavity), etc. the night before operation. The placebo group (n=31) was pasted by plasters without magnetic beads. The blank group (n=30) was given no intervention. The mental and gastrointestinal functional changes before and 3 days after the operation were observed. As compared with those in the control group and the blank group, the postoperative score of Self rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was less (25.5 +/- 0.81 vs. 28.9 +/- 3.19, 28.3 +/- 2.36, both P < 0.01), with lower-dose of Innovar [(2.5 + 1.1) mL vs. (3.4 + 1.8) mL, (3.2 + 1.6) mL, both P < 0.05], earlier exsufflation after the operation [(34.2 + 12.1) h vs. (46.3 + 10.9) h, (43.2 + 14.8) h, both P < 0.01] and higher level serum of beta-endorphin before and after the operation in the APS group (all P < 0.05). The magnetic auricular point-sticking has sedative, analgesic and function-regulating effects on the abdominal gynecological operation. Source

Li W.S.,Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM
Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion

To explore an optimum method on postoperative recovery of general-anesthesia gynecological laparoscopic surgery. One hundred and twenty cases of gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into three groups, 40 cases in each one. The sensitive points of bilateral Shenmen (TF4), Zigong (TF2), Wei (CO4), Dachang (CO7) and so on were selected in all three groups one night before the surgery. The sticking with magnetic beads was applied in the group A. The magnetic beads were in-pair stuck at front-back corresponding location of both ears in the group B. The same-appearance plaster was put at the corresponding acupoints in the group C. The intubation anesthesia was applied in all three groups and postoperative recovery of gynecological laparoscopic surgery was observed. The postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) was (1.77 +/- 1.65) in the group A and (1.80 +/- 1.96) in the group B, which was both lower than (2.62 +/- 1.46) in the group C (both P < 0.01). The occurrence rate of nausea and vomiting was 25.0% (9/36) in the group A and 20.0% (8/40) in the group B, which was both lower than 50.0% (19/38) in the group C (both P < 0.01). The recovery of borborygmus on postoperative 1st and 3rd day in the group A and B was faster than that in the group C (both P < 0.05), while time of fart and defecation in the group A and B was earlier than that in the group C (both P < 0.05). The score of state-trait anxiety inventory in the group A and B was lower than that in the group C (both P < 0.05), but the differences of each item between the group A and B were not obvious (both P > 0.05). The auricular point sticking could support analgesia of general-anesthesia gynecological laparoscopic surgery, which could relieve anxiety mood, reduce occurrence of nausea and vomiting and improve function of stomach and intestine to benefit postoperative recovery. However, the effect of in-pair sticking of auricular point with magnetic beads at front-back acupoints was not obviously strengthened. Source

Zhao J.,University College London | Kalaskar D.,University College London | Farhatnia Y.,University College London | Bai X.,Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM | And 2 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry

Stroke or cerebral vascular accidents are among the leading causes of death in the world. With the availability of Digital Subtraction Angiography, transluminal angioplasty has become feasible in many situations and the role of intracranial stents is becoming ever more important in the management of cerebral vascular diseases. In current review, we outline the chronological development of various stents namely; balloon expandable stent, self-expandable open cell stent, self-expandable close cell stent and the flow diverting stent. Further we discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of stent migration, thromboemboli, damage to vessels during procedure, in-stent stenosis and hyper-perfusion damage. We also discuss the importance of in-situ endothelialization, controlled expandability and hemodynamic manipulation in stent design. Further, we summarized the role and need for further development in the areas of bio-compatible materials, endothelial progenitor cell capture technique, bio-functionalized-magnetic-nano-particles and nanotechnology which are significant in intracranial stent development. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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