Guangdong Provincial Control Center

Guangzhou, China

Guangdong Provincial Control Center

Guangzhou, China
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Davis A.,Columbia University | Meyerson B.E.,Indiana University | Aghaulor B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Brown K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2016

Background: Increased trade between China and Uganda has fueled trafficking of female Ugandans into China. These women may face challenges accessing health services. This study focused on examining barriers to health care access among female Ugandan sex workers in China. Methods: In 2014, we undertook in-depth interviews with 19 female Ugandan sex workers in Guangzhou, China. Interviews focused on barriers to health service access and were analyzed using an a priori coding framework followed by open-coding to capture emergent themes. Results: Out of 19 women, 12 women reported a history of being trafficked into China. None of the women had a valid Chinese visa. Fear of being arrested for lack of documentation discouraged women in this sample from accessing hospital services. Low pay, housing exploitation, and remittances contributed to participants' lack of financial resources, which further inhibited their ability to access health services. Participants expressed feeling social isolation from the local community and reported mistrust of local individuals and organizations, including hospitals. Conclusion: Ugandan sex workers in China faced substantial structural barriers that limited health service access. Policy changes and the development of new programs are urgently needed to ensure these women have improved access to health services. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | University of California at San Francisco, Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, Indiana University, UNC Project China and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for equity in health | Year: 2016

Increased trade between China and Uganda has fueled trafficking of female Ugandans into China. These women may face challenges accessing health services. This study focused on examining barriers to health care access among female Ugandan sex workers in China.In 2014, we undertook in-depth interviews with 19 female Ugandan sex workers in Guangzhou, China. Interviews focused on barriers to health service access and were analyzed using an a priori coding framework followed by open-coding to capture emergent themes.Out of 19 women, 12 women reported a history of being trafficked into China. None of the women had a valid Chinese visa. Fear of being arrested for lack of documentation discouraged women in this sample from accessing hospital services. Low pay, housing exploitation, and remittances contributed to participants lack of financial resources, which further inhibited their ability to access health services. Participants expressed feeling social isolation from the local community and reported mistrust of local individuals and organizations, including hospitals.Ugandan sex workers in China faced substantial structural barriers that limited health service access. Policy changes and the development of new programs are urgently needed to ensure these women have improved access to health services.


Tan N.X.,Harvard University | Messina J.P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Yang L.-G.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Yang B.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province. Methods/Principal Findings: This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97) socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room) are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models. Conclusions/Significance: Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China. © 2011 Tan et al.


Tucker J.D.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Tucker J.D.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Peng H.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Wang K.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion. Methods/Principal Findings: Semi-structured interviews with 34 low-income female sex workers and 28 health outreach members were used to examine how social relationships affected condom use and negotiation, STI/HIV testing and health-seeking behaviors, and dealing with violent clients. These data suggested that sex worker's laoxiang (hometown social connections) were more powerful than relationships between women selling sex at the same venue in establishing the terms and risk of commercial sex. Female sex workers from the same hometown often migrated to the city with their laoxiang and these social connections fulfilled many of the functions of nongovernmental organizations, including collective mobilization, condom promotion, violence mitigation, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. Outreach members observed that sex workers accompanied by their laoxiang were often more willing to accept STI/HIV testing and trust local sexual health services. Conclusions/Significance: Organizing STI/HIV prevention services around an explicitly defined laoxiang social network may provide a strong foundation for sex worker health programs. Further research on dyadic interpersonal relationships between female sex workers, group dynamics and norm establishment, and the social network characteristics are needed. © 2011 Tucker et al.


Bien C.H.,North University of China | Bien C.H.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Muessig K.E.,North University of China | Muessig K.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Health services for men who have sex with men (MSM) are inadequate in many areas around the world. HIV and syphilis test uptake remain suboptimal among MSM in China and many other regions. To inform the development of more comprehensive sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing programs among MSM, we collected descriptive data on MSM testing practices and preferences. Methods MSM in two large urban Chinese cities were recruited through community-based organizations and clinics to participate in semi-structured interviews. We purposively sampled MSM across a range of sociodemographic characteristics and testing history, and assessed preferences for HIV and syphilis testing in the context of facilitators and barriers to testing and previous testing experiences. Each interview transcript was coded and thematically analyzed using Atlas.ti 7.0. Results 35 MSM were interviewed. Confidentiality and privacy were the most important factors influencing participants' decisions about whether and where to get tested. Men preferred rapid testing (results available within 30 minutes) compared to conventional tests where results take several hours or days to return. Participants described concerns about quality and accuracy of rapid tests offered in non-clinical settings such as community-based organizations. Men preferred testing service providers who were MSM-friendly, non-discriminatory, and medically trained. Preferred service center environments included: convenient but discrete location, MSM-friendly atmosphere, and clean/standard medical facilities. Conclusion Our data highlight the need for HIV/syphilis testing services that are confidential and inclusive of MSM. Rapid testing in decentralized (i.e. peripheral health facilities and communitylevel, non-clinical venues) settings provides an opportunity to reach individuals who have not been tested before, but must be accompanied by quality assurance systems and technical competence. Implementation research could further evaluate HIV/syphilis testing programs responsive to MSM preferences. Short Summary A qualitative study of MSM in South China found thatmen preferred rapid STD testing atMSMfocused test centers, but were concerned about test quality assurance and confidentiality. ©2015 Bien et al.


Tucker J.D.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Tucker J.D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bien C.H.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Peeling R.W.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Recent Findings: Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Summary: Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Harvard University and Guangdong Provincial Control Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Health services for men who have sex with men (MSM) are inadequate in many areas around the world. HIV and syphilis test uptake remain suboptimal among MSM in China and many other regions. To inform the development of more comprehensive sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing programs among MSM, we collected descriptive data on MSM testing practices and preferences.MSM in two large urban Chinese cities were recruited through community-based organizations and clinics to participate in semi-structured interviews. We purposively sampled MSM across a range of sociodemographic characteristics and testing history, and assessed preferences for HIV and syphilis testing in the context of facilitators and barriers to testing and previous testing experiences. Each interview transcript was coded and thematically analyzed using Atlas.ti 7.0.35 MSM were interviewed. Confidentiality and privacy were the most important factors influencing participants decisions about whether and where to get tested. Men preferred rapid testing (results available within 30 minutes) compared to conventional tests where results take several hours or days to return. Participants described concerns about quality and accuracy of rapid tests offered in non-clinical settings such as community-based organizations. Men preferred testing service providers who were MSM-friendly, non-discriminatory, and medically trained. Preferred service center environments included: convenient but discrete location, MSM-friendly atmosphere, and clean/standard medical facilities.Our data highlight the need for HIV/syphilis testing services that are confidential and inclusive of MSM. Rapid testing in decentralized (i.e. peripheral health facilities and community-level, non-clinical venues) settings provides an opportunity to reach individuals who have not been tested before, but must be accompanied by quality assurance systems and technical competence. Implementation research could further evaluate HIV/syphilis testing programs responsive to MSM preferences.A qualitative study of MSM in South China found that men preferred rapid STD testing at MSM-focused test centers, but were concerned about test quality assurance and confidentiality.


Muessig K.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Muessig K.E.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | McLaughlin M.M.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Nie J.M.,Number Eight Municipal Hospital | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2014

Despite China's free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, there are high rates of treatment failure, large sociodemographic disparities in care outcomes and emerging medication resistance. Understanding patient medication adherence behaviors and challenges could inform adherence interventions to maximize the individual and prevention benefits of ART. This study assessed recent nonadherence and treatment interruption among 813 HIV-infected adult outpatients in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a behavioral survey, underwent chart review, and were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 721 HIV-infected adults receiving ART, 18.9% reported recent nonadherence (any missed ART in the past four weeks) and 6.8% reported treatment interruption (four or more weeks of missed ART in the past year). Lower education, living alone, alcohol use, and being on ART one to three years were associated with recent nonadherence. Male gender, lower education, and being on ART one to three years were associated with treatment interruption. ART medication adherence interventions are needed in China that include individualized, long-term adherence plans sensitive to patients' educational and economic situations. These interventions should also consider possible gender disparities in treatment outcomes and address the use of alcohol during ART. Successful ART medication adherence interventions in China can inform other international settings that face similar adherence challenges and disparities. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Tucker J.D.,North University of China | Tucker J.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Tucker J.D.,Guangdong Provincial Control Center | Young D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 3 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design: A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting: 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants: 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures: STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results: Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions: This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed.


PubMed | Guangdong Provincial Control Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current opinion in infectious diseases | Year: 2012

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control.Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation.Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation.

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